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8. The Source of Metals on the Earth

Rare earth's metals
Rare earth's metals

All of the base metals on Earth such as iron, gold, silver, platinum, zinc, copper, etc. are not originally made on Earth, because Earth is a planet, and planets do not have enough energy to create these elements from atoms. The base metals can be made only in very powerful nuclear reactors, in stars.

"Our work shows that most of the precious metals on which our economies and many key industrial processes are based have been added to our planet by lucky coincidence when the Earth was hit by about 20 billion billion tones of asteroidal material."
http://www.sciencedaily.com/...

"The heavier the star, the more different elements it will make, and the shorter its life. Our Sun, on the other hand, will not make much past helium. In addition, it is only the more massive stars that go supernova. So, if a star makes iron, it will likely go supernova."
http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/...

What we see in the two quotes above is that metallic elements have been delivered to Earth, as well as to the other inner planets in our solar system, from a star that is not the same as our sun.

Metallic elements like iron can be either pure metals or metals as ingredients of rocks. These rocks are the same rocks that make up ocean floor and mountains. And since there is no rocky mountain on Earth older than 200 million years, and there is no ocean floor older than 200 million years, we have to say that the metals along with their containing rocks, have arrived to Earth around that time only, about 200 million years ago.

Few Rocks: "there are few 250 million-year-old rocks left on Earth. Most have been recycled by our planet's tectonic activity"
http://science.nasa.gov/...

The link above is about the Permian-Triassic extinction event; the quote says that there are only "few" rocks older than 250 million years left on Earth.

The "few" rocks that are older than 250 million years in the quote above are very likely meteorites landed on Earth from outer space, just like the meteorites that land on Earth nowadays from time to time. And these meteorites can be rocks, metals, or rocks containing metals.

The absence of rocks is attributed to a "theory" that hasn't been proven to exist before 200 million years! The surprise is that the so-called tectonic activity that has recycled ALL of the rocky mountains on Earth, has left huge sandstone mountains untouched!

These sandstone mountains do not contain metals at all; this a fact nobody can reject it; no need to know anything about radiometric dating in order to know that these mountains are completely different from the sandstone mountains that were created after the mass extinction 200 MYA; simply search for metals; do you find any? no; that is it, the Earth has undergone a dramatic change. Sandstone mountains are made from the earth soil, if there is no metal in the soil, the mountains will not contain metals; as simple as that.

Ancient Oceans: "This is a list of former oceans that disappeared due to tectonic movements and other geographical and climatic changes."
https://en.wikipedia.org/...

If the supposed ancient oceans have ever existed, they must have left some traces behind, one piece of a seafloor at least, but nothing is there, they are imaginary oceans; what applies to the ancient rocky mountains, applies also to the ancient oceans, they have never existed before 200 million years, so anything is attributed to them cannot be correct, including Banded Iron Formation (BIF).

banded iron formation
Banded Iron Formation

BIFs are layers of iron on old sedimentary rock (sandstone), supposedly formed in sea water of the ancient seas and bacteria releasing oxygen.

The planet Mars does not have oceans or tectonic activity to recycle the seafloor, or bacteria to release oxygen, but the same material is found there:

"Hematite... is a common iron oxide with the formula Fe2O3... Huge deposits of hematite are found in banded iron formations... The spectral signature of hematite was seen on the planet Mars by the infrared spectrometer on the NASA Mars Global Surveyor and 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft in orbit around Mars. The mineral was seen in abundance at two sites on the planet"
https://en.wikipedia.org/...

BIFs formed under "sea" water and are NOT forming today:

"We do not see any rocks of this type forming in the world today, and this suggests that conditions in the ancient oceans where they formed were quite different than today.. Banded iron formations appear to have been deposited in areas of the ocean where seawater with high contents of dissolved iron and silica came into contact with water containing higher amounts of oxygen, which resulted in the precipitation of hematite and chert (microcrystalline quartz).. Most of the iron and silicon probably came from upwelling iron-rich, deep ocean currents derived from ocean floor volcanic systems.. Because of their great thickness and the enormous areas that they cover, banded iron formations probably accumulated on wide continental shelves at water depths of over 200 metres."
http://museum.wa.gov.au/...

BIFs are not forming today because the factor that made these layers does not exist anymore, this is the only reasonable explanation. The 200 meters mentioned in the quote above is 200 meters above sea level in the current standards.

The supposed ancient oceans were actually the waters that have been added to Earth 200 million years ago.

"Study confirms banded iron formations originated from oxidized iron"
https://www.sciencedaily.com/...

Oxidized iron is iron oxide, rust.


 Left: Banded Iron Formation (BIF). Right: Star debris disk (the source of BIF)

The way these layers were made is difficult to imagine, maybe one layer at a time, sand is accumulating over the first layer, water mixed with rust falling from the debris disk of the second sun on the previous layer, one layer on top of another, and the process continues. The time the whole process has taken to complete maybe millions of years.

The old ages given to BIFs are based on analysis of the mineral zircon, it is found now everywhere in the crust of Earth.

The most likely reason for the mineral zircon to be found in BIFs is contamination.. The added water flowed on the surface of Earth, carried with it elements (including zircon) from the surface of Earth, the elements got mixed with the water, to finally settle on the old sandstone mountains, building Banded Iron Formations.. This assumption has been proven correct in some places: "Influence of contamination on banded iron formations in the Isua supracrustal belt"
https://www.sciencedirect.com/...

Triassic sandstone mountains contain high level of iron oxide.. 200 MYA

As long as there is no piece of a mountain, or a seafloor, to prove the existence of metal on Earth, anything else is subject to contamination, or meteorites falling from space, more than 90 percent of meteorites are of rock, while the remainder consist wholly or partly of iron and nickel.

 The Earth Inner Core
earth inner core, earth layers

We have already talked about the earth inner core in the Overview section, and we saw in that section that the earth did not have any metal at all before 200 million years, not even inside the earth's internal layers.

It is said that the Earth's tectonic activity recycles the sea floor and rocky mountains every 200 million years, but does it also recycle the Earth inner core?!

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