The Second Sun Report (Full Report)
A study shows that there was a second sun (star) in the solar system used to orbit in the asteroid belt, between Mars and Jupiter, around 200 million years ago.
Last Updated: March 22, 2017
This page contains the full report.
Have you ever wondered why Mars is red , covered with a layer of iron oxide (rust), and why it is polluted with uranium and other radioactive materials?
Isn't it true that some dying stars produce iron oxide (rust)?
It is also true that radioactive materials are products of dying stars.
Could it be that Mars was neighboring to a star that is not in existence today?!
The picture above says it all. A second sun was in the sky around 200 million years ago! Some of its remains are found now in the main asteroid belt. It was a very huge sun. Not smaller than the current sun, if not bigger.
to oxygen isotope records, early Earth surface temperatures could have been as
high as 45 – 85 degrees C!"
On the other hand, it is said that the early Sun was cool, giving only about 70% of solar heat, or even less. What was the source of that extra heat?
Because the second sun was much hotter than the existing sun, it ran out of fuel much faster.
The Earth 200 million years ago: 2 suns, one sun sets and the other sun immediately rises
The abundance of igneous rocks on the surface of Mars is much greater than any other terrestrial planet. They look exactly the same as mountain rocks. These rocks have come from debris of the second sun.
If the existing science doesn't know much about its own territory, the Earth, then how is it possible for this same science to know more about stars that are hundreds of light years away?!
Asteroid Ceres in the Asteroid belt contains more freshwater than Earth! Has it come from no where, or the object that used to exist in the asteroid belt was a generator of water?
Mars also might have received a lot of water from the second sun, but all of it has evaporated to space because of the very thin atmosphere of the planet. The atmosphere of Mars has been burned by the 2nd sun, just like what the main Sun has done to the atmosphere of Mercury.
gas was discovered in the 1770s, but it's taken us more than 230 years to
finally say with certainty that this very simple molecule
exists in space"
If oxygen exists in space, it is meaningless to attribute it to bacteria supposedly lived "billions" of years ago. The question that has to be answered is how oxygen came from space to Earth?
Just like all of the inner planets in the solar system, the moon has highlands, lowlands, mountains, and a mantle. So why shouldn't it be a planet?
And if it were a planet, where was it initially?
Is it a coincidence that the moon and Mercury have very similar surface features, atmosphere and size; or that is due to the same environment the two objects have lived in for a very long period of time?
Based on the arrangement of the inner planets, we see that the closer the inner planet to the Sun, the smaller it is; and the farther the bigger. Mars is the farthest inner planet from the Sun, so it should be bigger than Earth!
At the time of the solar system formation, the solar system objects were very close to each other; at that time the second sun burned Mars and prevented it from having the size that is supposed to have; just like what the current Sun has done to the burned Mercury and the moon. Mars' atmosphere is only about 1% the atmosphere of Earth. Mercury is much closer to the sun, so it has almost zero atmosphere. More on these points in the section about the formation of the solar system.
Gases from the dying second sun attracted to gas planets and increased their gas volume.
Unlike the inner planets, the sizes of the gas planets are in reverse order: the planet that closer the Sun, the bigger it is; not just bigger, but too much bigger! Jupiter has a mass of about 317 the mass of Earth. The Great Red Spot itself is so big that three Earths would fit in it easily. Saturn's mass is about 95 the mass of Earth.
The iron-oxide (rust) in the Great Red Spot and the red-brown shades of Jupiter can be seen very clearly. Where has it come from?
In the section about the rust on Mars, we will see that the inner planet that is closer to the asteroid belt, the more percentage of rust it has on its surface.
The so-called protoplanetary disks do "not" make new planets as assumed by the Nebular theory. They are just debris disks of dying stars. In addition to the dust and gas, they also contain rocks, metal, and many other different materials. They are basically the same as the asteroid belt, but much newer.
QUOTE: "the debris
disks around these examples (e.g. Vega, Alphecca,
Fomalhaut, etc.) are probably not truly 'protoplanetary',
but represent a later stage of disk evolution where extrasolar analogs of the
asteroid belt and Kuiper belt."
Some observations have shown that the source of the material that makes the disk is a companion star. So if there were no companion star (second sun) in the solar system, the asteroid belt wouldn't have existed! By the end of its life, the second sun created a "protoplanetary" disk, or better say a "debris" disk; and the asteroid belt now contains remains of that disk.
Most of the dust and gas that were in the asteroid belt have collected on top of Jupiter and Saturn and increased their gas volume. Some other amounts have fallen on the inner planets, and mixed with the planets' soil, and participated in making the strong cement that glues mountain rocks together.
The red-brown sandstone mountains on Earth contain high level of iron oxide (rust). They are called Triassic sandstone because they date back to the Triassic period, 200 million years ago!
After the summary we will see in more details the signs the second sun has left on Mars, Earth and other planets.
The dominant theory for the asteroid belt is that the rocks and metals that are orbiting in the belt now are leftover materials, failed to come together to form a planet. Another suggestion says that there was a planet in that orbit, collided with another object and broken apart. And both of these two theories do NOT take anything outside the asteroid belt into account!
Now if we assume a space object used to orbit in the asteroid belt, and we look at it from the impact that it has left on the planet Mars in particular, and the whole solar system in general, that object cannot be anything but a star!
It is true that putting all objects in the asteroid belt together will "not" make them a big star, and not even a small star in the size of the moon, but the objects themselves are remains of a star.
Many earth and space theories have been formulated without considering a second star in the solar system. As a result, they ended up either partially or completely incorrect. For example, two theories exist to explain the continental edges that fit together on the world map. The dominant theory is the Continental Drift, also called, Plate Tectonic. The other theory is the Expanding Earth. The plate tectonic theory states that the continents before 200 million years were united in a very vast ocean, and then they started to move. Even though this theory seems to explain the continental edges that fit together on the Atlantic ocean and other smaller seas, it completely ignores the same phenomenon on the Pacific! The Expanding Earth theory does not ignore the continental edges that fit together on the Pacific, but it does not give a reason for why the earth is expanding!
Many changes and events have taken place in Earth and other planets throughout the history of the solar system, but most of them are still a puzzle. Something must be missing somewhere!
Earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions are still occurring, but because the specialists are unaware of what has happened in the past, in order to know how the earth works today, these disasters remain a mystery.
In this article we will try to rework some of the Earth and space theories to see how things will turn out when taking the second sun as a prime factor in the equation of the solar system.
The Second Sun -- Just like many types of stars in the final period of their life, and because of the changes and events that have happened in Earth and other planets in the solar system, the second sun, most likely, have fired extremely powerful gamma and neutron rays by the end of its life. These rays have led to major changes and disasters in Earth, and also changes in the other inner planets!
According to theories, stars produce light by nuclear fusion. The nuclear fusion produces gamma rays, and then these gamma rays are converted to light. On the other hand, observations have shown that some dying stars fire strong gamma rays; this means that these stars at a very late stage of their life failed to convert the produced gamma rays to light.
The emitted gamma rays most likely have caused ionization (chemical action/reaction process) of gases inside the Earth's mantle (the layer that is just below the crust) that led the mantle to explode and the Earth's crust to break. When that happened, life extinction resulted and almost all life on Earth died out, including insects. This is the Permian –Triassic extinction event.
Large quantities of meteoroids and asteroids have fallen down from the sky and gone all the way down to the mantle via large holes and trenches that were resulted from the explosions that have taken place inside the mantle.
These meteoroids were actually igneous rocks, and they were originally part of the second sun. They were thrown by the second sun during its collapsing period, and then they came to orbit the planets. After falling on Earth, they formed the ocean floor and rocky mountains, as well as the so-called "lowlands" and mountains in the other inner planets.
Most, if not all, of the base metals on Earth such as iron, magnesium, platinum, gold and silver have come from the second sun. They arrived on Earth either as pure metals or as ingredients of rocks, which are the same rocks that contain metals now, specifically the rocks that make up the ocean floor and mountains, plus the molten rocks inside the mantle.
Because of the added material, the earth has expanded, and its mass has increased. The expansion happened only once, and the earth is "not" continuously expanding as stated by the Expanding Earth theory. And because of the water that is filling ocean basins, the land chunks (continents) started to drift! There was no continental drift before the expansion of Earth.
Before the formation of the ocean floor, only shallow water existed on Earth in lakes and rivers. Regarding mountains, only sandstone mountains existed in the past. The only mineral that can be found in the old sandstone mountains is coal. Even though coal is not metal, but people have to mine it, that is why it is classified as mineral.
The other inner planets have also expanded. The lowlands (blue) on the other planets, which are equivalent to the ocean floor on Earth, are added parts, plus mountains. All lowlands, in all planets, are much smoother than the highlands! This is a clear indication that they have been created at a very late time. The lowland on Earth is the sea floor. No sea floor on Earth is older than 200 million years.
Since there is no water in the other inner planets, there is no continental drift there.
The following quote is from an article about the Permian-Triassic extinction event.
QUOTE: "The Earth was
engulfed in widespread volcanism at the time of the extinction."
From the volcanic debris that dates back to that period of time, scientists think it was just volcanoes covered the earth completely. The sign is the same, but the interpretations are different. This debris was not from volcanoes, but the Earth's mantle exploded and the Earth's crust opened up, making large holes and long trenches all over the world.
When the second sun started firing gamma rays at the inner (terrestrial) planets, these rays caused ionization of gases inside the Earth's mantle that led to huge increase in gas pressure that resulted in explosions.
Rocks started to fall from space (originally were parts of the second sun) and go all the way down inside the open trenches. Some of these rocks were melted inside the Earth's mantle and reproduced to make the sea floor. Other rocks were stacking up inside other trenches and building mountains. At the same time the Earth was expanding. The evidence that supports that this was actually the case is that no seafloor is older than 200 million years and no rocky mountain is older than 200 million years, all over the Earth. In addition, there is no physical evidence to show any tectonic activity before 200 million years.
What made the falling rocks to fall inside the open areas is that moving ionized gases create a magnetic field, and the falling rocks contain iron and magnetism. So the rocks were attracted to these areas more than anywhere else.
Some mountains have remained underground for a long time, and then raised by a rising magma from the mantle. Some other mountains are still being raised until this day.
The sea floor is changing size, enlarging in some places and shrinking in other places, depending on the way the Earth balances the water on its surface.
What we have here is NOT a natural process that is governed by a predetermined natural law, but an accident that has caused a sudden change; so the results are unpredictable. Now, for example, the Atlantic is expanding and the Pacific is shrinking; but will this process continue like that? It is up to the Earth to decide. The same thing is true for mountains; it has been noticed that the Himalaya Mountain is still rising! But for how long will this rise continue? It will certainly stop in one day, just like the other mountains that have already stopped; and another mountain may start to rise, or may not.
What happened to the atmosphere of Mars?
But how this can happen: "a process that is thought to be driven by interactions
with the solar wind."
Note that the so called -- solar wind -- isn't air, but a solar radiation of charged particles.
Because of this unexplained phenomenon, some scientists think that the solar wind
of the existing sun was much stronger in the past. If this was the case, it
would have affected the atmosphere of Earth much more than Mars', and for the
simple reason: Earth is much closer to the sun than Mars.
The Earth Inner Core
The earth inner core, that is made of iron and nickel, isn't as old as the earth itself, as some might think, but it is an added part at a very late time, and it is getting bigger. Some scientists give it an age of about 500 million years only, compared to the Earth estimated age 4 billion years.
QUOTE: "The inner core is a relatively recent addition to our planet
and establishing when it was formed is a topic of vigorous scientific debate
with estimates ranging from 0.5 billion to 2 billion years ago."
What applies to the inner core of Earth must also apply to the other solar system planets, and we have to initially assume that all of them have got their inner core at a very late time.
It looks like the fallen rocks that stayed inside the mantle got melted and released their metallic elements, including iron. The extracted iron started to sink to the earth center and concentrate there to form the inner core. So the formation of the earth core is an ongoing process until this day and it is getting bigger because the rocks are still releasing metal and the metal is sinking to the earth center. Since there was no iron or any other metal on Earth before 200 million years, it is impossible for the earth core to be older than 200 million years.
The young age of the Earth metal core adds evidence that shows that Earth had
no metal at all before 200 million years, not even inside the earth internal
The spherical moons of Jupiter were planets of the Second Sun
The planet Jupiter is still in a gas form because it is far away from the sun; but why are the moons of Jupiter very much similar to the inner terrestrial planets?
The moon of Jupiter Io has over 400 "active" volcanoes!
These moons must have been planets orbiting a star at some point in time.
Since there are signs of a second sun in the asteroid
belt, and because the moons are relatively near the asteroid belt,
we have to assume, based on the common sense, that these moons were actually planets of the second sun.
The solar system might have been in this layout in the beginning when the second sun was fully functioning. The two stars orbit each other around a common center of mass; each star had five rocky planets; the gas giants orbit the two stars.
Planets of the Second Sun
The general assumption is that earthquakes are caused by movements of the so-called tectonic plates (earth plates), and the plates are pushed by ocean ridges. If this is the case, and the source of earthquakes is ocean ridges, then it is better to watch the source and see whether it shows any abnormal behavior at the time of, or before, earthquakes? If the source is available and reachable, it is meaningless to wait for a disaster at the destination, where it is too late to react and do anything about it!
It is true that earth plates sometimes move during earthquakes, but this is a result and not a cause.
After examining the signs of these disasters, it seems that they result from
ionization of gases inside the earth's mantle. The cause of ionization is
distant dying stars emitting gamma rays, most likely pulsars, or
other stars with the same attributes and behavior. What makes the pulsar
energies to go undetected is that the chemical reactions inside the mantle do
not occur instantly. And because of the time the chemical reactions take to show
up, earthquakes, tsunamis and volcanic eruptions do not appear, from the general
observation, to have any relation with cosmic rays in space.
The picture above shows the orbit of a metal (iron) asteroid in the main asteroid belt, called, Psyche. It is almost in the middle of the belt. It has a diameter of about 250 km. It has "not" been visited or investigated yet. It could be the inner core of the second sun or a major part of it. Note that there is NO inner core in stars that are functioning normally, but some stars by the end of their life, when they start making metals, they develop what can be called a star inner core.
The solar system consists of the so-called inner planets, which are the ones that are inside the circle of the asteroid belt; and the outer gas planets, which are behind the asteroid belt.
The apparent reason for the gas planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus) to remain in a gas from is that they are far away from the sun.
All space organizations around the world are adopting the Solar Nebular theory as the base for star and planet formation.
The nebular hypothesis has been formulated in the 18th century, in times when people knew very little about the universe; thinking that all solar systems in space are like our solar system in the present time; one sun and few planets revolve around it; assuming our solar system in the past was exactly the same as it is today.
The idea of dust and gas did not come from no where, but from the materials that make up the earth. The earth consists of dust and gas, so it is assumed to have been made from dust and gas!
Even though the Nebular theory seems to work, at the first glance, with the the rocky
planets, it fails to explain the gas giants. QUOTE:
"The formation of giant planets is another unsolved problem."
The supposed way of planet formation in a protoplanetary disk
Space technology kept improving, and astronomers kept adjusting and improving the nebular theory accordingly. In the 1990s they found some new stars (some and not all) do have dust and gas belts around them. As a result: they associated the finding with their theory.
The one minute YouTube video clip at the right summarizes the whole idea of the protoplanetary disk and planet formation.
A written summary of the solar system formation is in the following paragraph:
five billion years ago, our solar system had its beginnings as a vast cloud of
dust and gas. The cloud began to collapse, flattening into a giant disk that
rotated faster and faster, just as an ice skater spins faster as she brings her
arms in. The Sun formed at the center, and the swirling gas and dust in the rest
of the spinning disk clumped together to produce the planets, moons, asteroids,
and comets. The reason so many objects orbit the Sun in nearly the same plane
(called the ecliptic) and in the same direction is that they all formed from
this same disk."
If you watched the video clip above, you would have seen that it is about the formation of rocky planets only; the gas planets are not mentioned at all; because the nebular theory does not have an explanation for their formation; they are still unsolved problem! If this theory failed to explain existing cases, it shouldn't be a surprise if it fails to predict the presence of unknown situations.
In addition, the observed disks are not made of pure dust and gas, but they also contain rocks,
metals and other materials, so that they can be interpreted as debris disks,
QUOTE: "the debris
disks around these examples (e.g. Vega, Alphecca,
Fomalhaut, etc.) are probably not truly 'protoplanetary',
but represent a later stage of disk evolution where extrasolar analogs of the
asteroid belt and Kuiper belt."
Summary: The nebular hypothesis, as initially
theorized, hasn't been proven to exist anywhere in the entire universe; it fails
to explain gas planets; and does not have any place for binary systems.
Without a companion star, the asteroid belt wouldn't have existed!
It is said that the protoplanetary disk (also called accretion disk and nebular disk) is increasing in size, whereas the debris disk is not. This point could be true because the dying star which is releasing the dust and gas is still active but hidden under the dust. The extra volume of dust and gas must come from somewhere anyway; and if it is not coming from the hidden dying star, then where is it coming from?
QUOTE: "This artist's conception shows how the accretion disk forms as material is pulled from the companion star and swirls into the black hole."
Regardless of the function of black holes and whether the black hole is pulling the disk material from a companion star, or the companion star is just releasing the material without any pulling force, the material itself is the same as the material that makes up identical disks around other types of stars, young or aging stars.
If observations, at least in some cases, have shown that the disk material comes from a dying companion star, then the natural explanation for the asteroid belt is to say that it contains material from a dead star that once existed in the solar system.
These observations also show that the idea of accretion disks creating new planets and stars is completely wrong. It seems that a recycling process of the material in a black hole is needed before the material can be used again for making new planets and stars.
The dark energy in the outer space is pushing everything away form everything else, so how is it possible for gases or dust or whatever thing to come together to form planets and stars without an extraordinary power to overcome this mysterious energy. The only known force so far that is capable of collecting stars debris is black holes. So it looks like the giant black holes will collapse in one day, and new planets and stars, in a gas form, will be born.
Planet migration is a theory assuming some gas planets migrate from distant locations to orbit their stars very closely. The theory is based on the locations of the gas planets in the solar system assuming these gas planets have been in their current positions since the beginning of time.
It has been observed, elsewhere in the universe, that there are some gas planets orbit their stars in very close distances. These gas planets are in the size of Jupiter and Neptune.
Theorists think that these gas planets have come from very far places to orbit their stars very closely. So they formulated a theory called planet migration. This theory is based on the locations of the gas planets in the solar system, on the assumption that the gas planets in the solar system have been in their current positions since the beginning of time, otherwise nobody has seen the so-called hot-Jupiters and hot-Neptunes migrating from outside to inside.
It seems that these hot-Neptunes and hot-Jupiters are newly born planets, in a gas form, and they are now being developed into terrestrial planets very near their stars, by the stars' energy.
Back again to the debris disk, and since there was no black hole in the solar system to suck the disk material, it is better search and see where the disk material has actually gone.
Gases from the dying second sun attracted to gas planets and increased their gas volume.
By looking at the gas planets in our solar system, we can see that the closer the gas planet to the asteroid belt, the bigger it is. The reason is that the dust and gas clouds did not perform the supposed function. Instead of making new planets, they have just gone and collected on top of (or mixed with) existing planets, Jupiter and Saturn, and increased their gas volume!
The red-brown shades on Jupiter, including the Great Red Spot, are dust and "rust."
Rust is iron, a heavy metal that doesn't travel far away from the source. That could have been the reason for Saturn to get a little amount of it, but it got more of lighter dust particles.
The minimum distance between Saturn and the center of the asteroid belt is about one "billion" km, whereas the minimum distance from Jupiter to the center of the asteroid belt is about 260 million km only.
Uranus is very far away from the Asteroid belt, so it got very little amount of gases that altered its gas properties very slightly. Neptune is the farthest planet from the Asteroid belt, and most likely got nothing.
This leads to a conclusion that all of the gas planets were originally like Neptune, with very close size (if not the same) and exactly the same chemical composition, but the huge amounts of gases, dust and rust produced by the dying second sun changed their sizes and chemical properties.
The inner planets (including the earth) must have also received some of the dust and gas from the dying sun. They have been used to seal and cement mountain rocks. This point is discussed in more details in the section about mountain formation.
Higher concentration of rust on Earth is found in the so-called Triassic sandstone mountains and in the red desert sands; more on this topic is in the section about the rust on Mars.
But it seems that most of the gases were attracted to the gas planets. It could be because they are in a colder place; according to the second law of thermodynamics: heat flows spontaneously from a hot to a cold body. Or it could be of other gas attraction force that is not known in the time being.
Jupiter is a very huge planet; its mass is about 317 the mass of Earth; the Great Red Spot itself is so big that three Earths would fit in it easily. Saturn's mass is about 95 the mass of Earth. But both of them, most likely, were originally in the size of Neptune, with a mass of 17 times the mass of Earth. Now just imagine how big was the object that supplied Jupiter and Saturn with these amounts of gases, solid particles and materials to make Jupiter and Saturn that much big?
Planetary Fact Sheets (Jupiter, Saturn, Earth,
The initial orbit of the Moon and the supposed size of Mars
And if it were a planet, where was it initially?
The moon's surface features, atmosphere and size are very similar to that of Mercury. These signs indicate that the two objects have lived in a very similar environment. And since Mercury is near the sun until this day, the moon could have been also there for a very long period of time.
QUOTE: "Like the moon, Mercury has very little
atmosphere... Mercury is the smallest planet in our solar system -- only
slightly larger than the Earth's moon... Mercury has a solid,
cratered surface, much like Earth's moon"
The orbit of Mercury (see the image above) could have been caused by a missing planet between Mercury and the Sun. If we assume now that there was a planet between Mercury and the Sun, that planet, in one way or another, would have prevented Mercury from having this strange orbit.
In the 19th century, a French astronomer suggested
a very small planet between Mercury and the Sun, and called his planet, Vulcan.
The suggested theory states that when Vulcan passes between Mercury and the Sun,
it causes Mercury to deviate from its orbit slightly. But no such planet has
been discovered so far.
Some say the problem of Mercury's orbit is solved by Einstein's theory of
general relativity. If Einstein's theory indeed solved the problem, beyond any
doubt, then why the search for the supposed planet Vulcan is ongoing; QUOTE: "Searches
of NASA's two [twin] STEREO spacecraft data have failed to detect any vulcanoids
between Mercury and the Sun"
The similarity of Mercury and the moon, and the strange orbit of Mercury, indicate that the moon was initially the first planet next to the sun.
You may find articles comparing Mercury's surface features and atmosphere with that of the moon, and then they say the similarity stops here. They follow this by comparing the lowlands and the internal structures (most of the internal structures is theoretical and conjecture). This type of comparison will NOT lead to the conclusion that the moon and Mercury have been neighbors near the Sun for some period of time. The lowlands, mountains, and solid materials inside the mantle have been added at a very late time. Based on crater counting technique, the moon's lowland is only about 200 million years old; as old as the sea floor on Earth. Yes, there are theories suggesting otherwise, but why should we ignore the visible evidence for the sake of a theory that we don't know the validity of it? We will come back to the ages of lowlands in the inner planets in the section titled Expansion in all Inner Planets.
As shown in the picture above, the sizes of the inner planets seem to be related to their distance from the sun. The closer the inner planet is to the Sun, the smaller it is. Based on this reasoning, Mars is the farthest terrestrial planet from the sun; so it should be bigger than Earth!
It is very likely the second sun has burned Mars at the time of formation, when the solar system objects where very close to each other; so Mars has become smaller than Earth.
The moon might have received a heavy impact at a very late time that pushed it out of its original orbit around the sun, and then it started to move away. Or it might have started to move away due to some other reason that is not known in the time being.
An Artwork of Life in the Cambrian Period
The shift of position of the moon is very likely has taken place in the Cambrian period, and the moon could have been the reason that triggered water to come out from the Earth's mantle to the surface of the Earth, that led to the sudden appearance of life on Earth, in the so-called the Cambrian Explosion. More about this point in the section about the water on Earth.
The closest theory to what we have in this page is the Capture
theory; it states that the Earth caught a passing body which has
originally formed somewhere else in the solar system. The Capture theory however
is not the dominant theory. In fact, according to the first link above, it has
been ruled out! But we have looked at it from a different
point of view; and
based on this view, we found it the most suitable theory.
Binary (double) star systems do exist in the universe, but not many of them have been found with planets. Not because they do not contain planets, but because the Nebular theory has no place for planets in binary star systems, so astronomers do not search for planets in these system.
QUOTE: "At twice the mass of Earth, the planet orbits one of the stars in the binary system at almost exactly the same distance from which Earth orbits the sun... The study provides the first evidence that terrestrial planets can form in orbits similar to Earth's, even in a binary star system where the stars are not very far apart... 'This greatly expands the potential locations to discover habitable planets in the future,' said Scott Gaudi, professor of astronomy at Ohio State. 'Half the stars in the galaxy are in binary systems. We had no idea if Earth-like planets in Earth-like orbits could even form in these systems'... 'Normally, once we see that we have a binary, we stop observing. The only reason we took such intensive observations of this binary is that we already knew there was a planet,' Gould said. 'In the future we'll change our strategy"
In the quote above, it seems that they are surprised to see an earth-like planet in a binary star system where the two stars are not far apart, and the planet is orbiting one star and not both. This situation is considered impossible using the currently accepted model of planet formation.
Another example of binary star systems is planet Kepler-16b.
QUOTE: "Kepler 16b
is 200 light years from Earth. Kepler 16 is a binary star system comprising of
Kepler 16A and Kepler 16B, note that Kepler 16B is the star and Kepler 16b is
the planet. Kepler 16A is an orange dwarf with 69% the mass of the sun, while
Kepler 16B is a red dwarf with 20% the mass of the sun. The two stars are
separated by a distance of 20.5 million miles (33 million km). The combined
energy produced by the two stars is much less than that produced by our own sun.
Kepler 16b is a gas giant very similar in mass and radius to the planet Saturn."
Even though this system is very different from our solar system, it does show that a planet orbiting two stars, and far away from the stars' energies, remains in a gas form. But if it were orbiting between the two stars, and close to their various forms of energies, it is most likely to have been a rocky planet.
Both stars are dying stars, the bigger star (16A) is an orange dwarf, and the smaller star (16B) is a red dwarf. The planet itself is in the size of Saturn. It is very likely the planet initially was much smaller than its current size, but the gases released by the dying two stars, have been collected on top of, or mixed with, the planet and increased its size and mass.
There is no mention at all of any kind of belts in this binary system (Kepler
AB). And it
is unlikely to form at any time in the future, because not all stars are the same, and not
all stars end up in explosions. But if we assume the explosion of one of the two
stars, then the exploded star will form an asteroid belt around the other star,
and the planet will orbit one star plus the asteroid belt, just like Saturn now.
Planets of the Second Sun
Moons of Jupiter
A rocky and rounded (spherical) space object with a mantle must have been a planet at some point in time, regardless whether it is small or big. There are space objects in the solar system that fit in this category orbit Jupiter and Saturn; they are classified as moons.
Jupiter's moon Ganymede is the largest moon in the solar system. It is bigger than the planet Mercury, but smaller than Mars. It has a diameter of 5,262 km, whereas the diameter of Mars is 6,780 km.
Io is the closest moon to the planet Jupiter; and it has over 400 "active" volcanoes!
The planet Jupiter is still in a gas form because it is far away from the sun; but why are the moons of Jupiter very much the same as inner terrestrial planets? They must have been developed somewhere else around a star.. And since there are signs pointing to a second sun in the asteroid belt, and because the moons are relatively near the asteroid belt, we have to assume that these moon were originally planets of the second sun.
Planets of the Second Sun
Gravitation and Center of Mass
Stars do NOT "pull" planets and other smaller stars (if there is any), but they all revolve around the center of mass of the whole system. So the idea of the sun "pulling" the planets in order to keep them revolve around it is simply incorrect.
Currently the center of mass of the solar system is located inside (or very near) the sun, but it is not in the center of the sun. For this reason the sun seems to rotate around itself. Actually it is not rotating around its center, but around the center of mass of the entire solar system, which happened to be inside (or very near) the sun.
In addition, the center of mass is not a force that "pulls" planets or stars and force them to orbit in one way or another, but a point in space that all objects orbit around it in such a way that keeps the entire system balanced.
And if the Sun becomes a black hole, will it swallow Earth?
QUOTE: "If the Sun suddenly
collapsed into a black hole, Earth would keep right on orbiting. We wouldn't
suddenly fall in. A year would still be 365 days, however chilly."
As you can see in the quotes above, there is no pulling force between stars and planets, even if the sun becomes a black hole. We saw earlier in this section a black hole sucking dust and gas from a dying star, but that is not due to a pulling force from the black hole, it is an attraction process between gases.
In a simple binary system, the center of mass is closer to the bigger star, or in the middle of the two stars if the two stars have the same mass.
In the simple binary star system to the right, the two stars orbit around an "invisible" point, that is the center of mass of the two stars. If the binary system has two stars only, the center of mass is located near the bigger star (or inside it). But if the system consists of two stars, plus many planets, the center of mass does not have to be near (or inside) the bigger star. It has to be somewhere inside the system to balance everything in it.
We don't know how things were in the very, very, beginning, but finally the second sun, when it lost most of its mass, it settled in the asteroid belt orbiting the existing sun.
Now if we are going to assume how things were, when the second sun was functioning normally, and based on what is seen elsewhere in universe, the solar system might have been similar to the picture below.
The solar system in the very beginning. The two stars orbit each other around a common center of mass
As you see in the picture above, when the second sun was fully functioning, the two stars orbit each other around an invisible center of mass, each star has its own planets; the planet that is closer to the sun, the smaller it is; Ganymede is the farthest planet from the second sun; it has a diameter of 5262 km; on the other side Mars is the farthest, it has a diameter of 6780 km.
The gas giants orbit the two stars. Jupiter and Saturn most likely were very far away from their current position, and they kept shifting inward as the second sun loses mass, and finally stopped in their current positions when the second sun completely collapsed.
The second sun was bigger than the existing sun, so it produced more heat, and that heat forced the nearby planets to shrink, to be smaller.
A question might be asked, why are these moons not rusty, like Mars? Now these
moons are covered in ice, and nobody knows what is hidden under the ice; they
could be full of rust.
Kuiper belt is at the right of the picture
The asteroid belt isn't the only belt in the solar system, there is also another belt surrounding the entire solar system; it is called Kuiper belt. The dwarf planet Pluto is considered an object of Kuiper belt.
Not much is know about Kuiper belt, but if the objects of it are the same as the ones in the asteroid belt, then it must have been a star.
Based on observations that we have talked about earlier, which are summarized in the picture to the right, it looks like the solar system was originally a black hole, and Kuiper belt star was orbiting it. The black hole finally exploded and gave birth to the solar system planets and two suns.
Now we will see how the situation on Earth was when the second sun was functioning normally.
Oxygen isotope data from ancient sedimentary rocks suggest that the early
Earth was much hotter than today, QUOTE: "according
to oxygen isotope records, early Earth surface temperatures could have been as
high as 45 – 85 degrees C!"
On the other hand, it is said that the early Sun was cool, giving only about
70% of solar heat, or even less. So where did the extra heat on the earth come
from? Many theories have been suggested, but without any supporting evidence at
In the present time, as everybody knows, a day on the Earth is 24 hours, but
the early Earth's day is said to be much shorter. It was about five to six hours
only. One theory suggests that a large object, in the size of Mars, impacted the
Earth and set it to spin very fast. But there is no sign of such a large object
to ever hit the earth! QUOTE: "Scientists
estimate that a day in the life of early Earth was only about 6 hours long."
Now we have alternative explanations, the early earth was not rotating so
rapidly, it is just the other sun made the day seems very short; one sun sets
and the other sun rises. Regarding the
early Earth's surface temperature, the extra heat was coming from the second sun.
But the Second Sun was much hotter on Mars, so it burned its atmosphere!
What happened to the atmosphere of Mars?
NASA studied the atmosphere of Mars and concluded that it was stripped from the
top: "The enrichment of heavier isotopes measured in the dominant carbon-dioxide
gas points to a process of loss from the top of the atmosphere"
But how this can happen: "a process that is thought to be driven by interactions
with the solar wind."
Note that the so called -- solar wind -- isn't air, but a solar radiation of charged particles.
Title: "Mars Atmosphere ERODED by Sun Activity"
Some have suggested that the solar wind of the existing sun was very strong:
"the solar wind is thought to be very strong at the beginning of our solar
The assumption above that the solar wind of the existing sun was stronger at the time of formation is based on the burned atmosphere of Mars, and nothing else. If this is true, the effect on Venus and Earth would have been much more!
Mars is the closest planet to the asteroid belt, the orbit of the second sun. And because of its position, it is very naturally to be affected by the second sun more than any other planet in the solar system.
The red shades and the Great Red Spot on the "gas" planet Jupiter are rust; the brown shades are rust mixed with dust.
QUOTE: "The short answer
to 'why is Mars red'
is that the planet is covered in rust.
Iron oxide to be exact... The
short answer does not explain where all of the iron oxide comes from, though.
There is a larger percentage of iron on the Martian surface than there is on
other planets. The exact source is unknown,
but many scientists believe that it came from the volcanoes that used to erupt
all over the planet."
According to the answer above, volcanoes could have been the source of rust. But volcanoes did not produce the same result on other planets, not even close! Needless to say that there is no evidence to show that volcanoes existed all over Mars, let alone they were behind this rust. The total number of volcanoes on Mars that once were active is about 20 only. Now all of them are dead.
On the other hand, Venus had more volcanoes than Mars:
QUOTE: "Venus has
more volcanoes than any other planet in the solar system. Over 1600 major
volcanoes or volcanic features are known (see map), and there are many, many
more smaller volcanoes. (No one has yet counted them all, but the total
number may be over
100,000 or even
is known to be active at present, but our data is very limited. Thus, while
most of these volcanoes are probably long dead, a few may still be active."
Even though Venus had much more volcanoes than Mars, the planet does not have any noticeable rust, or we better say it cannot be seen from long distances like Mars.
Venus, as well as all of the other inner planets, must have some amount of iron oxide on their surfaces, came from the dying second sun.
Iron oxide covering the planet Mars
By looking at the surface of Mars, we see a very thick layer of very fine rust covering the whole planet. It is like someone held a blower and blew fine rust, in equal quantities, on the surface of Mars. And that is exactly what happened, but the blower was very, very big!
Triassic sandstone mountains on earth contain high level of iron oxide (rust).
These "rusty" sandstone mountains are called Triassic sandstone because they date back to the Triassic period; at the end of the Permian-Triassic extinction event, 200 million years ago.
This rust could have been occupying a portion of the so-called "protoplanetary" disk (the debris disk) or the disk itself kept changing color from time to time depending on the released material from the dying second sun. And then it has fallen on Earth and mixed with the Earth's soil.
In the section about the formation of the solar system,
we saw a disk that has brown and light-brown colors. The image to
the right shows a disk that is mostly red and dark-red. In any case, we cannot draw any conclusion based on the colors of these disk
images, because they are not real, but only artworks drawn by artists.
Desert sands on Earth
"Apartment buildings made of sandstone from the late Triassic and early Jurassic periods... This sandstone is the result of a 200-million-year journey that began when dinosaurs first started to evolve."
If we take now the radiometric dating of the Triassic sandstone mountains as a reference, we can say that these desert sands have got the iron oxide at the same time as the mountains, because the sandstone mountains were originally sand. What supports this timing is that if iron oxide existed on Earth before the Triassic period, it would have been found in the older sandstone mountains. But the older sandstone mountains have coal only; no iron or metallic elements of any kind.
The Rusty Moon
The Earth's moon also has iron oxide in some areas,
QUOTE: "The mare [lowland]
regions have low reflectance because they contain relatively high
amounts of iron oxide (FeO). Some mare basalts contain unusually high amounts of
titanium oxide (TiO2) in addition to iron oxide, making for even lower
reflectance. TiO2 also shifts the color of the mare from
red to blue."
As you can see in the quote above, the lowlands on the moon should be red, but the addition of titanium oxide turned them to blue. Titanium oxide (TiO2) is also a product of dying stars. Because the moon is a very dry object, no wind is there, these chemical elements remained where they have been "deposited" initially. It is very likely the highlands also got some amounts of iron oxide, but much less. The moon's lowlands are on the facing side only; the dark side has almost no lowlands.
The question now is: if iron oxide is (iron + oxygen), and there is no oxygen on the moon, what caused the iron to rust?
According to the quote above, some of the moon's lowlands contain unusually higher amounts of titanium oxide than other lowlands. Unlike the earth, the moon does not have any atmospheric or environmental changes, so what makes one basalt area different from another basalt area? This is an indication that these chemical elements have been deposited on the moon at a later time.
The crater counting technique gives the lowlands of the moon an age of 200
million years only. QUOTE: "Lunar maria (lowlands) have
only 1/20 the crater density of the lunar highlands, therefore, they should be
1/20 the age, right? So, by this reasoning, if the highlands were 4.5 billion
years old, as old as the Earth, then the maria would be just 200 million years old."
This age estimate of 200 million years is very reasonable, because it matches the age of the sea floor and rocky mountains on earth, plus the rusty Triassic sandstone mountains. So if the moon's lowlands have an age of 200 million years, then the iron oxide and titanium oxide must have been deposited on these areas after they were created.
It doesn't seem there is any data about iron oxide on the "surface" of Venus published on the web in the time being, or it hasn't been known yet.
According to the link below, Mercury has about 3% of iron oxide on its surface:
"Direct observations from Earth indicate that it is 3
percent iron oxide by mass, compared to Earth's 8 percent."
The same logical question arises again: if Mercury does not have any oxygen at all, what caused the iron to rust on Mercury?
QUOTE: "Mars has twice as
much iron oxide in its outer layer as Earth does."
So if the percentage of iron oxide on Earth is 8 percent, Mars, according to the Wikipedia link above, should be 16 percent.
If we try now to arrange the inner planets based on the percentage of iron oxide they got on their "surfaces," we should have them in the following order: Mars, Earth, the Moon, Venus, Mercury. In other words, the closer the inner planet is to the asteroid belt, the higher percentage of iron oxide it has on its surface. Anything below the surface is just a supposition.
On the other side of the Asteroid belt, based on the visual observation, Jupiter (in the Great Red Spot, and the red-brown shades) has more iron oxide than Saturn.
Now it should be clear that the Asteroid belt (the second sun) was the distribution center of iron oxide (rust) to the solar system planets.
Mystery: "It has long been a mystery of why there is a
super-abundance of uranium, thorium, and potassium on the Martian surface
concentrated near Mare Acidalium in the region of the large, shallow depression.
Also, the Martian atmosphere has an unusual amount of radiogenic isotopes. An
explanation for this Martian mystery was presented by Space Physicist John
Brandenburg at the 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston, TX
this month. According to the press release, Brandenburg suggests, evidence shows
that approximately 180 million years ago the planet Mars was devastated by a massive natural nuclear explosion.
This natural event filled its atmosphere with radio-isotopes, irradiated its
soil and atmosphere with neutrons, and spread a layer of radioactive material on
the surface of Mars. His analysis estimates the
force of the explosion to have been in excess of 1 million one megaton hydrogen
The quote above is based on the assumption that a nuclear reactor has developed naturally on Mars, and then exploded by itself. The explosion was in excess of one million hydrogen bombs; each bomb is one million ton.
This kind of explosion nobody can say for certain it can happen naturally in a planet, but stars are nuclear reactors basically. And if the explosion indeed has taken place on Mars itself, it would have created huge craters on its surface, but no such craters exist!
It looks like the explosion has taken place in the neighborhood, and the concentration of its radiations and radioactive materials was Mars.
However, the pollution of radioactive materials on the entire surface and atmosphere of Mars may not be due to the explosion only, but also due to the radiation of the dying star on the planet Mars over a very long period of time; just like the rust.
The assumption in the quote above doesn't say where these radioactive materials have come from initially, but generally it is assumed that the solar system has got its radioactive materials from a giant star that has gone a supernova explosion. This supernova explosion is assumed to have injected radioactive materials into the solar system at the time of formation.
Some others are finding the supernova theory problematic, and now they are
developing new theories, QUOTE: "Strong
winds from a nearby dying star
may have injected radioactive material into the early Solar System, according to
a new model of star death."
The quote above could be true for a certain extend, because stars die very frequently, but there was another dying star injected huge amounts of radioactive material into Mars; and that star had to be near Mars for Mars to have that much radioactive pollution in its surface and atmosphere.
It is mentioned in the first quote in this section that the professor has evidence that shows that the explosion happened about 180 million years ago. The article on the given link does not say what that evidence is, but the time, 180 million years ago, seems close to the time frame we are looking at! The seafloor on Earth formed about 200 million years ago, and mountains started to rise around that time. In fact, all major changes on Earth have taken place around that time.
QUOTE: "The average
surface abundance of centimeter- to meter-scale rocks is much greater on Mars
than the other terrestrial planets."
The rocks that are found on the surface of Mars look exactly the same as rocks that make up mountains on Earth!
Because Mars is the closest planet to the asteroid belt, and because it is polluted with rust and radioactive materials, it shouldn't be a surprise to see it having igneous rocks on its surface more than any other planet.
QUOTE: "the Martian crust
consists mostly of volcanic basalt rock."
Just like the rust, the assumed source of these rocks is volcanoes; but volcanic rocks on Earth look completely different from the rocks on the surface of Mars!
Basalt (also called Mafic) rock is rich of iron and magnesium. And these metallic elements are ingredients of the rock. In order to make such a mix, a very special process is required, and not the normal natural factors like wind and rain. This indicates that they have arrived readymade from factory. And that factory must have been capable of manufacturing iron and magnesium (a star).
paleontologists, it's sometimes called the 'Great Dying.' Roughly a quarter of a
billion years ago, 90-95 percent of all life on Earth died out. It took 30
million years for the planet to recover. What happened? Most people are familiar
with the extinction event 65 million years ago that wiped out the dinosaurs. But
the Great Dying was much more devastating. It left almost nothing alive... Earth
scientists Sarda Sahney and Michael J Benton call it 'the most devastating
ecological event of all time."
It is mentioned in the quote above that 90-95% of life on the earth died out. It took the earth about 30 million years to recover. This type of life extinction adds evidence that shows that a completely abnormal event has taken place on Earth around that time, and lasted for a very, very long time. Following this event is the formation of sea floor, rise of rocky mountains, and continental drift. Theorists, however, do not see any relationship between these events; even though they happened in exactly the same time, and on the same planet!
"The Earth was engulfed in widespread volcanism at the time of the extinction."
QUOTE: "Scientists have
suggested many possible causes for the Great Dying: severe volcanism, a nearby
supernova, environmental changes wrought by the formation of a super-continent,
the devastating impact of a large asteroid --
or some combination of these.
Proving which theory is correct has been difficult."
It is written in the quote above that the cause could be a combination of these. Now if a "combination" is considered, this combination cannot be separate and isolated cases, all of them happening simultaneously in the same time, but a kind of one event triggering another, or one factor causing all of these events to happen together. Later in this section we will see a sign pointing to space as the source of this "combination."
Another assumed cause: "Lava flow 250 million years ago
likely killed most of Earth's life --A massive flow of molten rock, bubbling to
the surface and spreading more than a mile deep over an area half the size of
Australia, may have killed up to 90 percent of all animal species on Earth some
250 million years ago, a study suggests. The study shows that the flood of
molten rock that created what is known as the Siberian Traps in Russia was
almost twice as big as previously believed and could have continued for
thousands of years, changing the climate of the entire planet."
NASA has sent a team to sites in Japan and China to study supposed causes of the Great Dying (The Permian –Triassic extinction event). There are rocks, originally fallen from space, in these countries with sizes of 6 to 12 km across, as big or bigger than Mt. Everest. The rocks still exist and have been exposed.
sign pointing to space as a cause of the extinction --
QUOTE: "Deep inside
Permian-Triassic rocks, Becker's team found soccer ball-shaped molecules called
'fullerenes' (or 'buckyballs') with traces of helium and argon gas trapped
inside. The fullerenes held an unusual number of 3He and 36Ar atoms
-- isotopes that are more common in space than on Earth."
From the same article at the link above; some have suggested that the fallen rocks caused the
extinction, but others believe that life has been already wiped out when the rocks have
arrived. The team leader said: "If life suddenly has all
these different things happen to it," Becker says, "and then you slam it with a
rock the size of Mt. Everest -- boy! That's just really bad luck."
What can be seen in the quotes above is "not" only the isotopes that are more common in space than on Earth, but also the rocks that contain these isotopes have actually fallen down from space. These rocks are exactly identical to the rocks that make up rocky mountains. And after knowing this, you don't need a magic formula to figure out that the rocks that make up rocky mountains have actually come from space, at the time of the extinction.
Identical rocks (at least in shape) are those that are found on the surface of Mars And if the distribution of these rocks on the surface of Mars is more than any other planet, then the space object that distributed the rocks must have been near Mars. Now we are not trying to assume the impossible, but only using the common sense to see what has actually happened, and when it happened.
Rare earth's metals
All of the base metals on Earth such as iron, gold, silver, platinum, zinc, copper, etc. are not originally made on the earth, because the earth is a planet, and planets do not have enough energy to create these elements from atoms. The base metals can be made only in very powerful nuclear reactors, in stars.
QUOTE: "Our work shows that
most of the precious metals on which our economies and many key industrial
processes are based have been added to our planet by lucky coincidence when the
Earth was hit by about 20 billion billion tones of asteroidal material."
QUOTE: "The heavier the
star, the more different elements it will make, and the shorter its life. Our
Sun, on the other hand, will not make much past helium. In addition, it is only
the more massive stars that go supernova. So, if a star makes iron, it will
likely go supernova."
What we see in the two quotes above is that metallic elements have been delivered to Earth, as well as to the other inner planets in our solar system, from a star that is not the same as our sun.
The size of stars mentioned in the second quote above isn't an issue here. And whether the size or the chemical composition of the star that determines its function is another uncertain issue. We will see later, in the section about stars and the nature of the second sun that there are stars, classified as white dwarfs, have been observed to produce rocks and metals, and without exploding as supernova.
Metallic elements like iron can be either pure metals or metals as ingredients of rocks. These rocks are the same rocks that make up ocean floor and mountains. And since there is no rocky mountain on Earth older than 200 million years, and there is no ocean floor older than 200 million years, we have to say, based on the common sense, that the metals along with their containing rocks, have arrived to Earth around that time only, about 200 million years ago.
QUOTE: "there are few
250 million-year-old rocks left on Earth. Most have been recycled by our
planet's tectonic activity"
The link above is about the Permian-Triassic extinction event; the quote says that there are only "few" rocks older than 250 million years left on Earth. The absence of rocks is attributed to a "theory" that hasn't been proven to exist before 200 million years! The surprise is that the so-called tectonic activity that has "recycled" all of the rocky mountains on Earth, has left huge sandstone mountains untouched! And these sandstone mountains do not contain metals at all.
The supposed few rocks that are older than 250 million years in the quote
above are very likely meteorites landed on Earth from outer space, just like the
land on Earth nowadays from time to time. And these meteorites
can be rocks, metals, or rocks containing metals.
The Earth Inner Core
The earth inner core, that is made of iron and nickel, isn't as old as the earth itself, as some might think, but it is an added part at a very late time, and it is getting bigger. Some scientists give it an age of about 500 million years only, compared to the Earth estimated age, 4 billion years.
QUOTE: "The inner core is a relatively recent addition to our planet
and establishing when it was formed is a topic of vigorous scientific debate
with estimates ranging from 0.5 billion to 2 billion years ago."
It is said that the Earth's tectonic activity recycles the sea floor and rocky mountains every 200 million years, but does it also recycle the Earth inner core?!
Other than rocks that fall down from space as meteorites, there is no evidence to show the existence of metals on Earth since the beginning of the Earth history; not even inside the earth internal layers.
The most likely scenario that has led to the creation of the earth core is this: when the second sun started firing gamma rays at earth, and because it was a very near star, the rays were extremely powerful, so they caused ionization of gases inside the earth's mantle that led the mantle to explode. Debris from the second sun, mainly rocks, fell down inside the mantle and formed the sea floor. The rocks that stayed inside the mantle got melted and released their metallic elements, including iron. The extracted iron started to sink to the earth center and concentrate there to form the inner core. So the formation of the earth core is an ongoing process until this day; that is why the core is getting bigger. Since there was no iron or any other metal on Earth before 200 million years, it is impossible for the earth core to be older than 200 million years.
Oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, because the universe contains a lot of stars.
About 21 percent of the Earth's atmosphere is oxygen. So where has it come from? Distant stars?! If this were the case, then all of the solar system planets should have oxygen of the same quantity, or in a very close percentage, because they are relatively close to each other.
Stars are all over the universe, but the amount of oxygen on Earth is not increasing. So the source cannot be any general stars, but a very special one! And that very special star must "not" be in existence today; otherwise the amount of oxygen will increase.
From the Rust on Mars, we can tell that the second sun was an oxygen-rich star, otherwise the rust wouldn't have formed. And we saw in that section that the second sun has produced large quantities of water vapor (H2O) mixed with iron particles in order to produce rust.
What makes the Earth different from the other planets in terms of the oxygen quantity is very likely the distance of Earth from the second sun and maybe also the Earth was orbiting between the two suns all the time, like the picture to the right!
In the beginning all of the planets were in a gas form, and they were very close to each other (Solar System Formation). The stars formed first and ignited, but they were not very hot, because they were very new.
It is very likely the second sun stormed earth with water vapor when the planets were close to each other, for a very long period of time, and earth was orbiting in between, and when the second sun was "not" very hot.
Now regardless whether the way of oxygen and water transfer that we are
assuming here is correct or not, the point is that the source of oxygen and water is stars; and since there are signs
pointing to a second star once existed in the solar system that was capable of
producing oxygen and water, then that star must have been the source.
The Cambrian Explosion
An Artwork of Life in the Cambrian Period
Since life on Earth started only in the Cambrian period, we have to rule out the presence of water on the surface of Earth in any form, ice or liquid, before the Cambrian. Needless to say there is no physical evidence to show otherwise.
It looks like the water vapor received from the second sun at the time of formation has concentrated in a lower layer of the Earth's interior. Later on, after the Earth's crust solidified, and for some dynamic and/or chemical process, water vapor started to come close to the surface of Earth, specifically in the upper part of the Earth's mantle.
We have seen in the section about the formation of the solar system that the moon's initial position was the first planet near the Sun, and then shifted. It is very possible that the moon has come to orbit Earth at this time (in the Cambrian period) and caused the dynamic effects that forced the water to come close to the surface of Earth, in the upper part of the Earth's mantle.
When the water vapor came close to the upper part of the Earth's mantle, it started to come out from volcanic eruptions and forms clouds and then rain. And until this day, volcanoes produce water vapor that makes clouds and rain. More than 70% of the volcanic gases is water vapor.
Ice crater on Mars
The amount of water in Earth must have increased when the second sun entered its final period of life and started releasing huge amounts of water vapor. Large amounts of this water vapor must have frozen, and then fallen on earth in the form of ice. The evidence of ice is found in the ice craters on Mars.
The water on Earth is of a fixed quantity, but part of it seems to sink to
the mantle via cracks in one way or another, and then it is regenerated again in
the form of water vapor (H2O) via volcanoes
and cracks in the earth's mantle.
Water in the asteroid belt
Artwork of the dwarf planet (asteroid) Ceres
QUOTE: "Dwarf planet
may contain more freshwater
Ceres is an icy object; with a diameter of about 950 km; orbiting in the outer edge of asteroid belt; far away from the sun heat. It is very likely a rock with water ice building on it.
Every single object orbits in the asteroid belt in the present time gives an idea about an attribute of the original object that used to orbit there in the past, and Ceres is no exception. It is a leftover sign indicating that the object that used to exist in the asteroid belt was a generator of oxygen and water.
From the leftover materials in the asteroid belt and the amount of rocks and metals that have been delivered to the planets, we can see that the second sun had too much resource for the Earth and the other planets in the solar system.
In this section we will see that the second sun, in its final period of age, that could have lasted thousands of years, has injected some kind of energy into the earth and tore it apart, creating open areas and trenches in the crust, all the way down to the mantle. And via these open areas and trenches, asteroids and meteoroids from the second sun have gone into the earth's mantle, caused the earth to expand, and mountains to rise. The rocks that have fallen inside the mantle got melted and created the ocean floor, whereas the rocks that have stacked up created mountains.
The picture to the right shows the main parts of the earth's layers.
The oceanic crust, which is also the base of the continental crust, is made of basalt rock mainly.
Basalt is a rock that is rich in iron and magnesium. And because of the presence of these two minerals inside the rock, it is also called Mafic. The term Mafic is derived from Ma for magnesium and Fic from the Latin word Ferro, which means iron. Mafic is any rock that contains iron and magnesium.
The number of layers below the mantle and their contents are not known for certain, but to avoid any confusion, we let them be two layers, just like the common assumption.
If the metallic materials are not originally from earth, is there a way to put them inside the earth's mantle, other than opening an area in the crust, with a depth that reaches the mantle, and then place them there?
The knowledge about stars is still very limited, and if we put the second sun in a certain category, we may end up in conflict with the known or assumed functions of stars in that class. For example, if we classify the dead sun as a white dwarf star, a remnant of a star once was like our sun, some might say that white dwarfs are not known to have this or that function. Now there is a big difference between 'are not known to have, or thought to have' and 'they do not have'. Most of the available information about stars is theoretical, a type of 'thought to have' or 'believed to be', and the facts are extremely limited.
The Sun of the solar system is classified as a star that will end up as a white dwarf. Based on
this theoretical classification, it is supposed to vanish without doing anything
at all. Now this assumption is challenged. A star that has been classified as a
white dwarf was found acting like a pulsing star: "New observations
from Suzaku, a joint Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and NASA X-ray
observatory, have challenged
scientists’ conventional understanding of
white dwarfs. Observers had
believed white dwarfs were inert stellar corpses that slowly cool and fade away,
but the new data tell a completely different story. At least one
white dwarf, known as AE
Aquarii, emits pulses
of high-energy (hard) X-rays as it whirls around on its axis. 'We’re seeing
behavior like the pulsar in the Crab Nebula, but we’re seeing it in a white
dwarf,' says Koji Mukai of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.
The Crab Nebula is the shattered remnant of a massive star that ended its life
in a supernova explosion. This is the first time
such pulsar-like behavior has ever been observed in a white dwarf."
The current star theories divide stars into two categories: white dwarf stars and neutron stars. 90% of stars in space are categorized as white dwarfs. The remaining 10% are neutron stars that explode as supernova. The supernova explosion is so huge to the point that you can see it very clearly even with the naked eye. Based on these two categories, we conclude that no solid material whatsoever can be found in dead stars. A nuclear explosion in the size of supernova will not even leave a grain of dust to remain intact. And white dwarfs are only condensed gases that fade away over time. However, on the link below, over 100 dying stars, categorized as white dwarfs, have been found polluted with planetary debris, rocks and metal! The assumed sources of planet debris around these dead stars are nearby planets. A research team is trying to find any of the assumed sources. But not a single planet has been found near these dead stars so far.
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Finds Dead Stars
'Polluted with Planet Debris
The natural explanation is to say that the supposed planet debris have actually come out of the original stars after they have broken apart. It is like seeing a collapsed building; you don't need anyone to tell you that the junk you are seeing is the materials that were making up the building. But if you limit your conclusion to two options, then you have to pick one of these two options only, even if the selected option doesn't make sense at all. Saying so however doesn't mean no stars end up their life as condensed gases that vanish slowly over time, but to limit all stars in space to two categories only is a problem.
It seems that the second is very similar to, if not the same as, these dead stars that are found polluted with the so-called planetary debris; and of course, the source of the debris is the dead stars themselves.
The second sun most likely have emitted gamma rays that were capable of penetrating the earth's crust. This function is found now in pulsars and generally all or most of neutron stars; plus the white dwarf stars mentioned above. Pulsars, neutron, and white dwarfs are dying stars, but originally they were normal stars just like the Sun.
According to theories, stars produce light by nuclear fusion. The nuclear fusion produce gamma rays, and then these gamma rays are converted to light. On the other hand, observations have shown that some dying stars fire strong gamma rays; this means that these stars at a very late stage of their life failed to convert the produced gamma rays to light.
Gamma Ray Burst
Gamma ray is very penetrating. Even machine-made gamma ray can penetrate, for a certain degree, through lead.
When these rays pass through matter, they eject electrons from the atoms they strike. This process is called ionization. It is an action-reaction chemical process that can create new substances and compounds, which can lead to an increase in volume and/or pressure.
Ionization process can interact with gas, liquid or maybe other matters, but the affected matters inside the earth's mantle, by gamma rays strike, are very likely gases. The reason for saying gases and not liquid or anything else is that the earth's mantle exploded. And there is nothing that is known to come out of the earth's mantle via volcanoes that can cause explosions other than gases.
"The Earth was engulfed in widespread volcanism at the time of the extinction."
The chemical reactions that have taken place inside the mantle, when the earth was struck with gamma rays, caused a great increase in gas pressure, inside the mantle, that led the mantle to explode and the crust to break, in order to release the extra gas pressure. The explosions that have taken place inside the mantle created very big holes and trenches in the crust, going all the way down to the mantle -- Based on debris from the earth's mantle found on the surface of earth, which is exactly the same as volcanic debris, scientists think the Earth was engulfed in widespread volcanism.
One last point that is worth mentioning: there is a metal (iron) asteroid in the main asteroid belt, orbiting almost in the middle of the belt, called, Psyche. It has a diameter of about 250 km. This asteroid could be the inner core of the second sun, or a major part of it. NASA may send a mission to asteroid Psyche in the future, but no date has been set yet.
Some think it is an inner core of a planet that has never formed. Others are
waiting to see what it is going to be.
QUOTE: "But here's the thing: we don't know what
we're going to see," says Elkins-Tanton. "We've seen rock worlds and ice worlds
and gas worlds, but we've never visited a metal world. We have no idea what it
will look like. We only know we're going to be surprised."
If it is visited, and the space craft tests it to see whether it is part of a star, the object may reveal something about this point. But if they completely rule out any relation this object may have with stars, then they will get the result that they want. It is like a doctor testing the blood of a patient. If the doctor doesn't check for a particular virus in the blood, the virus will not say I am here come and find me.
All inner, terrestrial, planets have lowlands and highlands. All lowlands are smooth and made mainly of molten basalt rocks. All the lowlands, in all of the inner planets, are younger than the highlands!
Lava flow; magma equivalent
The oceanic crust is the lowland of Earth, and its thickness is about 5 to 10 km. The continental crust is much older than the oceanic crust, and its thickness is about 30 to 50 km.
We have seen in the previous section that the earth curst opened up in some areas, making very big holes and trenches, in order to release the extra gas pressure.
At the time when rocks were falling from the sky, they fell either in trenches or on the newly forming ocean floor, because of the high magnetic field at these places. The magnetic field was created by the moving ionized gases; the ionization of gases was created by gamma rays from the dying second sun.
of an ionized gas will produce a magnetic field."
Since the falling rocks contain iron, they were attracted to the nearest magnetic field.
However, the falling rocks are not breaking. They fall in slow motion, because the gravity earth at that time was much weaker than today.
Falling rocks on ocean floor were melted inside the mantle. The mantle became full of rocks. After filling the mantle, the earth started to expand, creating a magma (molten rock) layer, and continued to expand until rocks from the sky stopped falling.
Cracked Surface, Faults -- a countless number of cracks have taken place all over this new solid layer. These cracks are the same as the ones that are called 'Faults' by the tectonic theory. The exact number of these cracks is unknown, and the way they were created is random.
Any solid and closed container is subject to cracks due to temperature changes. Temperatures inside the earth's interior are much higher than temperatures above the crust. The result is cracks everywhere. Some are short cracks, and some others are long ones. Cracks are a must for the mantle to breath.
The above map of Mars shows some of the planet's lowlands and highlands. You can see on the scale below the map that the lowlands are lower up to 8km (-8000 meters on the scale). Like the seafloor on Earth, the lowlands on Mars are made mainly of molten basalt rocks.
It can also be seen on the map above that the number of impact craters on the lowlands is much less than the highlands. This is a clear indication that the lowlands are much younger than the highlands. In other words, the lowlands were created at a very late time.
Some ancient cultures called the dark areas on the moon "seas," assuming there is water on the moon. This assumption is proven incorrect, and there are no seas on the moon. However, these dark areas are still called lunar maria. In Latin, maria is the plural of mare, and means seas.
These dark areas on the moon are not at the same level as the so-called highlands. And just like the seafloor on Earth, and the lowlands on Mars, the moon's lowlands are also made of molten basalt rock!
Venus is very close to the sun, the temperature there is very high, about 460°C, and its atmosphere is very thick, so that the surface of the planet cannot be seen. However, radar images show that Venus has lowlands and highlands. About 80% of Venus is lowland.
QUOTE: "It is
hypothesized that Venus underwent some sort of global resurfacing about
300–500 million years ago,
though no Venusian rock has ever been dated. One possible explanation for this
event is that it is part of a cyclic process on Venus. On Earth, plate tectonics
allows heat to escape from the mantle. However, Venus has no evidence of plate
tectonics, so this theory states that the interior of the planet heats up (due
to the decay of radioactive elements) until material in the mantle is hot enough
to force its way to the surface."
Because the lowlands on Venus are much younger than the highlands, they have been dated between 300 and 500 million years. But this is just an assumption. Those who have given this date, they could easily date them 200 – 300 million years, as old as the sea floor on Earth.
Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. Its size is about the size of the
moon. And just like the other inner planets, it does have lowlands and
highlands. Visually the lowlands on Mercury appear much younger in age than the highlands.
The age of the seafloor on Earth is estimated to be about 200 million years old, compared to the earth's highland which is about 4.6 billion years old. The given explanation by the tectonic theory for this very young age of the seafloor is that the seafloor is being recycled every 200 million years! And of course, there is no physical evidence to support this idea.
However, as we will see later, some parts of the sea floor do recycle, but not in the same way as assumed by the tectonic theory.
The explanation for the lowlands on the moon, as well as Mercury, is that impacts of heavy meteorites have pushed the crust down, and then lava flowed on these lowered surfaces. But the source of the supposed lava flow on these surfaces hasn't been found yet! No traces of any large volcanoes are found anywhere on the moon that can produce such large areas of lowlands.
Unlike the moon and Mercury, Venus does not have large impact craters on its surface, nor has oceans and tectonic activities to "recycle" the seafloor every 200 million years, but it does have lowlands and highlands!
The estimated age of the lowlands on the moon is about 3.5 "billion" years, whereas the highlands, like the earth, is about 4.6 billion years. However, this age estimate seems very much exaggerated.
It seems that those who have done the radiometric test on some of the moon's rocks have ruled out rocks with small numbers of years, in one way or another, and tried to push the date back as much as possible, so that the numbers appear reasonable to them, based on their assumption that the lowlands were caused by large impact craters; and the craters on the highlands, most likely, were found very old, about 3.5 billion years. As a result, they have concluded that the lowlands must have the same age as the craters, the assumed cause! The other possibility is that radiometric dating is not suitable for dating rocks outside the Earth, because the environment on other planets is not the same as on Earth.
technique of estimating the age of a surface is by counting the impact craters
on the surface; the greater the crater density, the older the terrain. The
crater counting technique gives the lowlands of the moon a very different age.
QUOTE: "Lunar maria (lowlands) have only 1/20 the
crater density of the lunar highlands, therefore, they should be 1/20 the age,
right? So, by this reasoning, if the highlands were 4.5 billion years old, as
old as the Earth, then the maria would be just 200 million years old."
As you can see in the quote above, the crater counting technique gives the lowlands of the moon an age of about 200 million years only, as old as the ocean floor on earth!
Visually the moon's lowlands look much younger than the highlands. So something must have gone wrong with the radiometric dating technique to give very old ages for areas that look very, very new.
The fact is that there are "few" parts of the continental crust, have been shaped in such a way, so that if they are pushed side by side they would fit together.
On the other hand, there are theories. But theories are not facts. They can be right or wrong. Any theory is just a thought trying to explain a fact, when the real cause of the fact is unknown.
The dominant theory for explaining the earth shaping is the Plate Tectonics,
also called the Continental Drift. Another less famous theory is the Expanding
The tectonic theory states that the continents before 200 million years were in one single land sitting in a very vast ocean (right). And then these land chunks started to move, without any reason, and without any defined dynamic process! And because no reason is given for their movements, they are called, sometimes, wandering plates.
A major problem with the tectonic theory is that it views the world map from the Atlantic Ocean only, neglecting the Pacific, because the theory does not have an explanation for the matching edges on the pacific.
There are parts on the map, if they are viewed from the other side, they will fit perfectly on the Pacific too!
The expanding (continuously expanding) earth theory is more reasonable, because it deals with the map from all angles.
However, neither the Expanding Earth theory has an answer for why the earth is expanding, nor the Tectonic theory has an answer for why the so-called plates sat stationary for a very long time and then started to move all of a sudden. Moreover, both theories are not taking into consideration the ages of the lowlands of the other inner planets!
Regarding the Expanding Earth theory, the earth is not continuously expanding, it has just expanded once. And now it is shrinking!
The fact that cannot be missed is that neither the ocean floor existed nor the continents have ever moved before 200 million years.
If we take everything related to the earth structure into account, not ignoring anything, we have to say the earth has expanded, and the continents are drifting. In other words, the Expanding Earth theory and the Continental Drift theory are both correct in certain aspects.
Atlantic-centered world map
Antarctica; ridges from all sides, no trenches
By looking at the mid-ocean ridge of the Atlantic, it can be seen clearly
that the continents on both sides of the Atlantic are being pushed away from
each other. The red color represents the newest seafloor. The yellow areas are
older than the red, and so on. The green seafloor is about 150 million years
Antarctica is another example of the continental drift. It is surrounded by ridges from all sides. No trenches are found inside the circle of ridges of Antarctica.
The continents did not sit stationary for a long period of time, and all of a sudden started to move without any reason. The expansion of the earth, and the water that filled ocean basins, as we will see in the next section, are the reasons behind the drift of the land chunks.
Next we will see that there are parts of the world do fit together from the Pacific Ocean.
Pacific-centered world map
From the world map above, which is the Pacific Ocean centered, the shape in the picture to the right was produced.
Very simple turning of the colored areas, and without any artwork, we have something on the other side of the map that fits perfectly.
It is true that the parts that fit together from the other side are more, but not all of them do fit. The Mediterranean Sea doesn't fit, the Black Sea doesn't fit, the Gulf of Mexico doesn't fit, and many other areas do not fit.
The point is that we are not dealing with something that works according to a systematic natural law, but with an accident! Therefore, we should not expect, for example, a car accident to dismantle the car very nicely! Some parts may remain intact, but not all.
The Atlantic, as we will see later, has resulted from a crack in the basaltic layer at a late time, whereas the Pacific resulted from the initial explosion in the earth's crust, when the internal gas pressure exceeded the maximum limit. This fundamental difference in the way the two areas were separated produced completely different results.
At one period of time, the Pacific Ocean was small, just as it is shown in the picture above. Later on, the brown area was pushed away. And at a very late time, Australia separated.
Fossil discoveries prove that Australia and South America were connected together
at least 50 million years ago. QUOTE: "The
first evidence we have of marsupials [kangaroo-like animals]
in Australia comes from the 55 million-year-old fossil site at
Murgon in southern Queensland. This Murgon site has
yielded a range of marsupial fossils, many with strong South American connections. At Murgon there is also
evidence of a placental mammal, known as a condylarth. Placental mammals were
also found in North America and
South America at this time."
This fossil discovery is a shortcut for knowing that Australia was attached to South America at some period of the earth's history.
The map above also shows that the Pacific kept expanding for a very long period of time, until it arrived at its current size, and then stopped. Now it is shrinking. When the Pacific started to shrink, ocean trenches were created.
Ocean trenches and ridges were created in the Earth's lowland because the lowland on Earth is filled with water, and the Earth is trying to balance the amount of water on its surface.
At the time of the initial explosion, and while the earth was expanding, many parts of the continental crust have been mixed with the basaltic layer of the upper mantle. These parts are completely lost and cannot be retrieved. Therefore, any effort to reconstruct the original map of the earth will not succeed.
The evidence that shows that some parts of the crust rock have become part of the basaltic layer is the granite rocks that are found in ocean floor. Since granite is a foreigner to ocean floor, its presence there is very limited. This indicates that these granite layers were inserted, in one way or another, in an area where they are not supposed to be.
Granitic Seafloor Reported Off Brazil
Not much information is available about the granite seafloor that is found in Brazil, but it seems that during the initial explosions, a part of the continental crust was lowered down in the mantle, and then basalt rock that makes ocean floor built around it. Later on, it was drifted by the newly forming ocean floor. When water filled ocean basins, the upper soft layer from the crust, which was covering the granite sea floor, scattered by water. The remaining granite surface became part of the ocean floor, far in a deep sea, covered by water.
It is very likely that there are many ocean floors similar to the one found in Brazil, but waiting to be discovered. It is also possible that the shaping of the edges of these granite seafloors, if they are still intact, would match corresponding edges in the continental crust, so that if they are pushed side-by-side, they would fit together!
Now if we compare Mars to Earth 200 million years ago, we find in both planets the lowlands on one side and the highlands on the other side. Land chunks on Earth have changed position, but on Mars they remained in the same place where they were initially! The main difference between the two planets is water.
Based on what is seen on Mars and the other inner planets, it is very likely the earth's lowland was flat in the beginning, without ridges and trenches. But just like winds and rain change the surface features of the continental crust, the sea water also changes the surface features of the oceanic crust.
Mid Atlantic Ocean Ridge
Gases released from the earth's interior created clouds in the sky, which have produced rain that put weight on ocean floor.
This shift of energy, from the interior of the earth to the surface of the earth, must have caused a problem for the Earth stability.
The earth adjusted itself with the new situation by introducing ocean ridges and trenches. Expanding at the ridges and shrinking at the trenches.
The cracked solid, basaltic, layer of the Earth allowed ridges and trenches to form.
The only difference between the Earth and the other planets is water. The water has played a major role in dividing and shaping the oceanic crust.
At ocean ridges, magma rises from inside the mantle and builds new ocean floor. At ocean trenches, parts of the ocean floor fall down inside the mantle. This process causes parts of the land to spread away at ocean ridges, and other parts to come closer to each other at ocean trenches.
When ocean basins were filled with a considerable amount of water, the Earth tried to balance this water on its surface. It is like putting a weight on one side of a ball, and you see the air is being pushed to other sides.
In the beginning, the Atlantic Ocean was very narrow, while the Pacific was very big. Most of the weight was on the Pacific.
It seems that the Pacific Ocean is prevented from spreading further by the mountains that are found on the edges of the ocean. The presence of volcanoes along these mountains, on the so-called Ring of Fire, is an indication of lots of activities going on inside the mantle under these areas.
The Ring of Fire, which is a set of volcanoes located on the edges of the
Pacific Ocean, contains over 450 volcanoes. Nearly 90% of the world's major
earthquakes occur along the Ring of Fire. Most ocean trenches are found at the
edges of the Pacific Ocean.
With the exception of sandstone mountains, all rocky mountains have their bases connected directly to the basaltic layer, as we will in the next section.
Whenever the seafloor of the Pacific tries to spread farther, it hits mountains, or the basaltic layer that is connected to these mountains, and that causes earthquakes almost everyday. But these earthquakes that occur on daily basis are considered normal, and usually they do not cause any damages.
On the other hand, the Atlantic Ocean is able to spread, because the spreading force there seems to be stronger! Maybe because the Pacific is carrying a lot of weight on its surface and it has to push against mountains, whereas the Atlantic does not have these obstacles.
At ocean trenches, parts of the ocean floor are melted and fallen down inside the mantle. The mantle compensate for these fallen parts at the ridges in other places. The other places can be anywhere, and not limited to the Atlantic Ocean only. This process causes some places to expand at the ridges, and other places to shrink at the trenches.
The presence of ridges and trenches in oceans led to the development of a theory called Seafloor Spreading. This theory doesn't seem to be correct, because the shrinking ratio at ocean trenches is not the same as the spreading ratio at ocean ridges.
The scientific terms introduced by the Seafloor Spreading theory, such as Lithosphere and Asthenosphere, are theoretical. There is no physical evidence to support their existence.
After countless changes in the Earth structure, the Earth now is shrinking!
QUOTE: "Sea level is
rising — and at an accelerating rate — especially along the U.S. East Coast and
Gulf of Mexico -- Global average sea level rose roughly eight inches from 1880 -
The quote above attributes the increase in sea level to the rise in atmospheric temperature.
Another explanation is that the earth is still adjusting itself since the time of ocean floor formation, millions of years ago. The ocean floor is shrinking at the trenches at a higher rate than spreading at the ridges. Whenever any ocean basin shrinks, the sea level rises. This means that the overall size of the earth is getting smaller very slightly every year.
Mountain formation according to the plate tectonic theory
One of the greatest mysteries that are found on Earth is mountains. Many theories to explain mountain formation have been put forward over the last 100 years or so, but it doesn't seem that these theories are convincing everybody; so new theories for mountain formation are still showing up from time to time.
Mountain formation, according to the tectonic theory is represented sometimes by two arrows opposite to each other and a single mountain block in between, to mean that the arrows or plates pushed the mountain block up. And based on this idea, it is thought that mountains are collections of rocks put together on top of the continental crust, and they are completely isolated from the earth's mantle that is made of basalt rock.
The Earth isn't the only planet that has mountains; all the inner planets have mountains too.
There is no water on the moon; and it does not have a continental crust as the earth does, but it has mountains that are exactly the same as mountains on earth (see the picture below). There on the moon, the mountains are "connected" directly to the basalt layer that is equivalent to the sea floor on Earth. And this shows that mountains are not pushed by the so-called continental crust, because there is no continental crust on the moon. In other words, mountain rocks were dropped from the sky, in trenches, and then pushed up by a rising magma from the mantle.
Mountain ranges on the edges of the Ring of Fire
The similar area on Earth is covered in water, but if the water and sand can be removed around these mountains that are on the edges of the ring of fire, we will find them connected directly to the lowland; no land barrier in between -- Basically, there is no major difference between the Earth and the other inner planets except water. And of course, the tectonic plates have nothing to do with the formation of mountains. The water on Earth is the factor that has played the major role that changed the Earth's surface features. And this could not have happened before the addition of rocks that created mountains and lowlands 200 million years ago.
By looking at the way these mountains are laid, it seems that they were built along cracks in the continental crust, in a very similar manner as the Atlantic Ocean and other seas.
When comparing the lowlands and mountains of Earth with the lowlands and mountains of the other inner planets, we can see that the difference between cracks where mountains were built, and cracks where seas were created, is the timing. The cracks of mountains formed trenches in the continental crust at the same time when the earth was receiving rocks from space, just like mountains on the other inner planets, whereas the cracks in ocean floor were stretched after water filled ocean basins.
At the time when rocks were falling from space, they fell either in trenches or on ocean floor, because of the high magnetic field at these places. The ionization of gases that was caused by gamma rays from the dying second sun created the magnetic field.
QUOTE: "Motion of an
ionized gas will produce a magnetic field."
Since the falling rocks contain iron, and also magnetism, they were attracted to the nearest magnetic field.
The base layer of ocean floor is much larger than the base layer of trenches, so it took ocean floor much more time to build thickness and solidify.
Because the base layer of trenches is much smaller, it solidified much faster.
Any rock that fell on ocean floor has broken through or melted, whereas rocks that fell in trenches have stacked up.
The picture of Mars above shows that some of the fallen rocks were stacking up together. The reason for these rocks to come together and then stack up is that they contain magnetism. Each rock was attracted by the one preceding it while they were coming down. On Earth, all rocky mountains have magnetism at various levels. It is very likely magnetism in mountain rocks was much stronger in the past than it is today.
The presence of Earth materials, such as sand and mud, with mountain rocks indicates that they were mixed and heated together with moisture, but not heated to the melting point. This mixture may have been done in different ways. One way is by wind, like the picture of Mars above, but inside trenches. The wind blows on the surface of Earth and causes sand and dust from the top of the surface to fall inside trenches and between rocks. Another way is rain; the rain falls and drives sand and mud into trenches. Or, what looks like earth materials was actually dust came together with the rocks from the so-called "protoplanetary" disk (the debris disk of the second sun). Or, a combination of all of the above mixed together.
Because mountains have their roots connected directly to the mantle, most volcanoes are found mainly in mountainous areas.
Rocks on Pothole dome below is an example of rocks that have fallen from the sky at a late time!
QUOTE: "We are standing on Pothole dome in Tuolumne meadows... These gigantic boulders are sitting on a bare surface of rock. However, there is no apparent source, or mountain that they could have fallen down from!"
This dome seems to be an uplifted area created by a rising magma. At a later time, when the surface was raised to a very high altitude, far away from the mantle heat, new rocks were attracted by magnetism in this dome, and fallen there. No information is found about magnetism in Pothole dome. But even if there is no magnetism in the dome now, that does not mean it has never been there.
Even though the rocks that are shown in the picture above are few, they show that they are not made underground as a result of a collision between continental plates, forcing the creation of rocks. It is a clear indication of a late arrival (rocks that have fallen from the sky at a late time).
What saved rocks from breaking after falling down is the low gravity of Earth at that time. As mentioned earlier, because of the smaller mass of the earth, and because the earth had no iron core, the earth gravity at that time was much less than today. As a result, rocks fall down in slow motion!
In the section about the Permian-Triassic extinction event, we have read about the huge rock, in the size of Mount Everest, that have fallen from the sky during the time of the extinction. This indicates that the falling rocks have something in common with the actual cause of the Great Dying. And since there were no rocky mountains on Earth before 200 million years, the found rocks in China and Japan add evidence to support that the rocks that make up mountains have actually come from space, at the time of the extinction.
Hot spring located at 4.5 km above sea level
Most hot springs around the world are found in mountainous areas. The spring shown in the picture to the right is located at a very high altitude, about 4.5 km above sea level.
The heat that makes these springs hot is coming from the mantle. In fact, it looks like the water itself is coming from the mantle too; the very hot water vapor, H2O, that is coming from the mantle, which is the same as the water vapor that is produced by volcanoes, condenses into water liquid after making contact with colder mountain rocks. And this water liquid makes hot springs.
Hot springs that are found in volcanic areas are extremely hot, with temperatures at, or near, the boiling point. The presence of hot springs and volcanoes side-by-side indicates that they are coming from the same source, the earth's mantle.
It is very likely that steam like the one coming from hot springs existed in the past in all areas where mountains are found today. This hot steam, plus dust, sand and mud, formed the strong cement that glued mountain rocks.
The apparent reason for water vapor that makes hot springs to exist until this day is unsealed spaces in mountain structure.
Based on what we have seen so far: the stacking up rocks on Mars, Pothole dome, and others, it is very likely that mountains formed in a way similar to the simplified block diagram above -- The rocks that have fallen first inside a trench were fully melted, forming a near flat surface (A), like Pothole dome. Magma from the mantle raised the melted surface up. The rocks that followed stacked up together (B), but not melted because of the increased distance between the new rocks and the mantle. They formed a mountain hill. The rising magma kept pushing the whole block up (C).
Since the amounts of fallen rocks are not the same all the time, mountain hills are not of the same height.
Not only the height is different, but also the directions of these hills are not the same. Some hills are going, for example, east-west, others north-south, and so on.
While mountains were taking shape inside their trenches, high pressure magma from the earth's mantle kept pushing these mountains up, at various rates.
Some mountains were pushed up very fast, others much slower, and some others may still under ground, but covered with sandstone.
The different rising rates are due to the way the earth is adjusting itself with the new situation. Because of the different rates, some mountains on Earth are still rising, while others are not.
In some places, scratches on the surface of mountain hills are found (like the picture above). They are called fold-mountains. They look as they have been squeezed before they were pushed up. This could happen if their trenches were narrowed after mountain hills have already taken shape and solidified while they were below the surface of Earth.
Narrowing of trenches could happen if parts of the continental crust were pushed by ocean water.
It is written under the picture above that these mountains were raised about
70 million years ago. This shows that they have remained below the
surface of the earth for a very long time, since the time of the formation of
ocean floor until they were pushed up 70 million years ago.
Mountains on the other inner planets
There are also mountains on the other planets, but they are not called fold-mountains, because there is no sign of scratches on their hills! However, the building process, at least for some mountains on the other inner planets, is the same as on Earth. The apparent reason for no scratches on their hills is the absence of water on the surface of the planets to push the continental crust and narrow mountain trenches.
Despite the absence of water on other planets, the presence of ancient volcanoes proves the presence of gases in the planets' mantles. These gases played the same function for mountain formation as the function performed by water vapor on Earth in cementing rocks together.
Mars' icy crater, Jupiter's icy moons (Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto), and Saturn's icy rings
In addition to the internal gases, and from the water ice on Mars, the icy moons of Jupiter, and the icy rings of Saturn, we can tell that the other inner planets, including the moon, have received a lot of water vapor, ice blocks, gas and dust from the second sun when it entered its final period of life. All of this participated in the mountain building process, just like the earth.
Water on the moon, QUOTE: "scientists
announced that more than 600 million tons of moon
water ice is lurking at the bottom of dark craters at the lunar north pole."
Asteroid Vesta, a supposed planet with a mountain!
The initial thought, QUOTE: "Large asteroid
Vesta once had molten core, magnetic field -- Despite its skewed appearance,
Vesta seems to have many features in common with planets.
This asteroid has a very deep impact crater on one side. It has been found
out recently that the crater depth is about 60 to 100 km, but did not reach the
supposed mantle, QUOTE: "The
new study, however, shows that, while it did reach about 60-100 km, it did not
penetrate to the mantle, suggesting the mantle begins deeper than previously
If this asteroid is broken apart, they are not going to see any mantle inside! In fact, none of the objects that are orbiting now in the asteroid belt is supposed to have a mantle, because all of them are debris of the second sun.
Regarding the assumed mountain on this asteroid, it looks like it has been made of rocks came together and stacked up because they contain magnetism; just like the stacking up rocks on the surface of Mars but much more. Dust, gas and water vapor from the debris disk of the second sun built around these rocks and made the strong cement that glued them together; and now the rocks look very much the same as mountains on Earth and on the other inner planets.
Earthquakes currently attributed to earth plates moving and clashing with each other.
The movement of earth plates is a result, and not a cause.
The factor that caused the earth's mantle to explode in the first time, that led to the Great Dying 200 million years ago, must be the same factor that causes disasters on Earth nowadays. That factor is the energy that causes chemical reactions and expansion in the mantle's substances.
In the past, that energy was gamma rays fired by the second sun. Nowadays it is fired by distant dying stars, specifically pulsing stars (pulsars).
What makes the pulsar energy to go undetected is that the effect of this energy takes time to show up. Chemical reactions do not occur instantly.
A question may arise, if earthquakes are caused by cosmic rays from space,
and these rays can hit Earth anywhere, then why earthquakes happen in certain
areas only and not everywhere? The most likely reason is
that the basalt layer is very thin in the areas where earthquakes occur very
frequently, so when dying stars fire gamma rays at these areas, where the basalt
layer is very thin, they penetrate to the earth's mantle, and cause earthquakes
in these weak areas, but when they fire gamma rays at areas where the basalt
layer is thick, the rays get blocked by the thick layers and prevented from
reaching the mantle.
Can Animals Sense Earthquakes?
Some animals sense earthquakes before they happen.
QUOTE: "In 373 B.C., historians recorded that
animals, including rats, snakes and weasels, deserted the Greek city of Helice
in droves just days before a quake devastated the place. Accounts of similar
animal anticipation of earthquakes have surfaced across the centuries since."
Animals' Reaction to Electromagnetic Pulses
Many have suggested that these animals sense the presence of some abnormal magnetic field. Few video clips on the link under the picture to the right show how some animals behaved when they were exposed to electromagnetic pulses.
Even though the animals in the video clips reacted strangely to magnetic pulses, magnetism is unlikely the energy they sense to predict earthquakes.
The video clips show only a small group of animals. If a large group of different animals and birds are tested against magnetic pulses, will all of them show strange behavior? This is something we have to consider before making any conclusion.
The page on the link below and many other pages say all kinds of animals, birds, reptiles, and even insects can sense earthquakes!
Animals, birds and earthquake predictions?
It is very likely that these animals, birds, and insects, sense or smell gases, chemical composition!
Smell is the only communication language of insects and reptiles.
Some birds and animals are also found having very strong smell sense. But who knows, maybe all creatures, other than humans, can communicate, in one way or another, via the sense of smell.
QUOTE: "Ants may have the
ability to sense earthquakes before they hit according to observations presented
at the European Geosciences Union annual meeting."
The antenna on the top of ant's head is the sense organ of the ants. They use it to identify danger and finding food, and also to communicate with each other.
What we see here is that the sense of smell is the common factor among all creatures that can predict upcoming earthquakes.
When ionization of gases occurs inside the mantle, new gases are produced. One or more of these new gases, or gas mixtures, could be acting as a warning signal for animals, birds, and insects, and force them to leave their homes to places where the signal completely disappears.
Some people have tried to use the animal behavior as a precursor of earthquakes. But the animal behavior turned out a hit or miss! This is possible if the actual chemical reaction inside the mantle, and also the earthquake, is happening in a far place, tens of kilometers away from the city, in the sea for example, but its effect reaches the city and causes a disaster there.
For centuries people have observed changes in the atmosphere prior to major earthquakes. Recent studies showed that the changes can reach up to the ionosphere, a layer in the atmosphere that starts at 80 km above the earth surface.
observations include: thermal infrared radiation; radon/ion activities; air
temperature and humidity, and concentration of electrons in the ionosphere."
These atmospheric changes (that must be caused by gases interacting with air) are basically the same signs that signal animals to leave their places. But humans are not as good as animals in understanding the signs; so they correlate the signs with earthquakes only after earthquakes actually strike.
Japan Earthquake Was 'In the Air' Days Before,
The concentration of these atmospheric changes are found mainly above epicenters; areas
where the basalt layer under the earth's crust is greatly damaged. This
indicates that the gases that cause atmospheric changes (humidity, temperature,
smell, etc.) are coming from the earth's mantle. So what can force gases to
leave the mantle other than an increase in gas volume or pressure? And why do
these gases get their volume increase in the first place? The most likely factor
to cause this thing to happen is an ionization process taking place inside the
earth's mantle. And if gas ionization is the case, there must be an ionizing
energy inside the mantle.
Tsunamis and Earthquake Islands
Tsunami is a rise of sea water level. It is attributed to earthquakes happening under the sea that causes an uplift of a section of ocean floor.
Another possibility is ionized gases that are being released along major fault lines in the sea. These gases interact with sea water and create high and long water waves.
Of course, the sudden release of gases can also create an earthquake. But the earthquake itself is not the cause of tsunamis.
Some other earthquakes cause islands to form. Below are two examples.
An earthquake hit Pakistan in September 2013 and pushed a mountain like island in the Arabian Sea. This island is interpreted as an ancient volcano.
Volcanic eruption and an earthquake raised an island in the Red Sea in 2011
What can cause a piece of land to go up, other than a push, pressure, from bottom?
If there is something being lifted up, there must be something else lifting it from bottom. Based on this simple logic and common sense, there is nothing we can see that can raise these islands, other than the gases that are also coming out of the nearby volcano, in the picture above.
Regarding the Pakistan earthquake, that island was also an ancient volcano!
In both cases, in Pakistan and the Red Sea, we find the gas as the common factor.
30 mins before the 2008 Sichuan earthquake in China
The picture to the right is of a China earthquake. The sky has changed color in a far distant place. After 30 minutes, a quake struck in a different area.
Based on what is seen in this picture, these strange clouds seem to be rising from the ground.
It seems that ionized gases from the mantle interacted with air particles in the sky and formed new substances that look in color like rainbow. It is possible that the ionized gas particles in the mantle continued to move forward until it reached a major fault line and caused a disaster there, or the earthquake could have been caused by another and bigger ionization process took place in the area where the earthquake struck.
These strange clouds are called Earthquake Lights. It is mentioned on
the link below that the so-called earthquake lights: "have
been accompanied by low-frequency radio noise in the
10 to 20 kHz range.
Earthquake lights have been seen weeks before or after earthquakes and hundreds
of kilometers from the epicenter."
YouTube: Pulsar SOUND
In addition to the dangerous energies pulsars emit, they also generate frequencies in the range of human hearing, roughly between 20 Hz - 20 kHz. This frequency range is almost the same as the range of frequencies mentioned in the quote above.
If this range of frequencies is converted to sound, it can be heard. The video on YouTube on the link under the picture to the right is an example of this conversion.
It might be possible that the pulsar sound, if studied properly, in correlation with other energies the pulsar emits, to be used as an early warning signal for earthquakes and other natural disasters!
It doesn't seem there is any recording of the earthquake frequency mentioned in the quote above published on the web, but even if a recording of this frequency does exist, it is unlikely to be as clear as the sound recording found on YouTube, because the recording must have been done on Earth, and that frequency range cannot penetrate the Earth atmosphere without severe distortion. However, if it is possible to filter out distortions and noise from the recording, a tone very close to the one found on YouTube might be recovered.
It is also mentioned in the quote above that these clouds have been seen
sometimes "before" and sometimes "after" earthquakes, and hundreds of kilometers
away from the epicenter -- Now we do not have a clear picture of what is
happening inside the earth's mantle, so we don't know whether these same ionized
gases have created clouds in one area and then continued to move to a different
area where they created an earthquake, or they are separate strikes of gamma
rays on different areas; in one area they have been attenuated too much by the
basalt layer, so they created a little ionization in the mantle gases that
resulted in earthquake clouds, whereas they have not been attenuated that much
in the other area where they have caused an earthquake. But regardless which
assumption is correct, or maybe both, the point is that an ionization process is
happening inside the earth's mantle and resulting in strange clouds and
Volcanic and Earthquake Lightning
Volcanic Lightning is very similar to rain lightning. Both are created when an electrically charged region discharges suddenly into a negative region of air or the ground.
There is also a phenomenon called, Earthquake Lightning. This is different
from the Earthquake Lights mentioned earlier. QUOTE: "In
some parts of the world, earthquakes are often accompanied by ball lightning,
stroke lightning and sheet lightning."
The presence of charged, positively ionized, particles in volcanic gases and
earthquakes shows that an ionization process is taking place inside the earth's
mantle, before, during, and after, the time of earthquakes and volcanic
Earthquakes and Magnetic Field Fluctuations
Earthquake researchers in Japan and Taiwan have observed fluctuations in
magnetic field on the surface of the earth, prior to, and at the time of, major
As mentioned in another section, moving ionized gases create a magnetic field.
of an ionized gas will produce a magnetic field."
The magnetic field created by the positively charged gases inside the mantle must be very, very strong, in order to cross the land crust and cause magnetic fluctuations on the surface of the earth.
In a similar phenomenon, "rain" lightning creates a magnetic force of
a very great
magnitude. Sometimes it causes fluctuations in electricity and introduces noise
in electronic communications and radio channels. So there is no
difference between rain lightning and earthquake/volcanic lightning, or the
magnetic field introduced by both.
Forecasting Earthquakes and Related Natural Disasters
We have seen in the previous paragraphs some signs and examples of earthquakes and the like. Every single sign and phenomenon must be taken into consideration before making any conclusion. The common factor for all the signs that have been presented in this section is the gas.
But where to watch for the ionization of gases? In the sky? Of course not. Not all animals are in the sky, but all of them sense earthquakes before they happen. The one and only one place that is known for releasing gases is the earth's mantle. Fortunately, we do not have to dig to the mantle in order to identify the gases available there. The mantle is releasing these gases via cracks (fault lines), and volcanic craters.
One way to test for the gas that acts as a warning message to animals is to take samples of volcanic gases and ionize them inside a laboratory with gamma ray, in the presence of animals, birds, reptiles, and insects. Gas sensors for all kinds of gases, and gas level indicators, have to be installed. Nerve instruments have to be mounted on the bodies of the animals under test. Experiments and good analysis of results should lead to the identification of the gas that acts as an earthquake sign.
Experimenting with ionization of volcanic gases and direct gamma or neutron ray strikes with air and very thin water vapor in order to produce earthquake lights, the lights that look like rainbow. Although this is a very difficult experiment to make, it is very important, because it gives a visual result.
Even though magnetism is not the cause of earthquakes, and changes in the magnetic field will not make colors of clouds in the sky to look like rainbow, but it can be used as a sign. Moving ionized particles generate a magnetic field. The presence and direction of magnetic pulses should be detectable by sensitive magnetic sensors. The data from these sensors will let people watching for earthquakes to know where the ionized gases are heading, at what speed, and on which major fault line they will strike. Magnetic sensors are to be used with gas sensors to avoid false indications.
Frequency meters for measuring and monitoring the range of frequencies from 10 Hz to 20 kHz are also required. The antennas of these meters/recorders should be mounted above mountains, in places where the noise level is very low. The result must be studied in correlation and comparison with pulsar frequencies.
The above ideas may not be sufficient for forecasting earthquakes accurately. But if they are taken as basis, and tested properly, and the results are analyzed correctly, they should lead to new ideas, ways, and procedures, which will result in accurate forecasting of earthquakes and other natural disasters.
An imaginary painting of an extinction event
We have seen in a previous section that some stars at the end of their life fail to convert gamma rays to light; and instead of giving light, they fire very powerful gamma rays.
The dead sun was from the same family that the current sun belongs to. They both were born together, grown together, and made from the same chemical composition. So it is expected that this sun, at some time in the future, before the end of its life, to fire gamma rays at earth. But unlike gamma rays that hit the earth nowadays from distant stars, the sun is a very near star, so the effect will be devastating.
At that time, earthquakes of very huge magnitudes will take place everywhere. The earth will be torn apart. Pressure of gases inside the mantle will increase dramatically causing the earth to expand and mountains to collapse.
Countless number of small islands, like the ones we have seen in the pictures of Pakistan and the Red Sea, will be formed.
Tsunamis will happen very frequently. Volcanoes will throw rocks of very huge sizes; destroying buildings, roads, and anything they hit. Those volcanoes will not be limited to the Ring of Fire only, but will cover the entire earth.
Even though the second sun was from the same family as the current sun, the two suns are not exactly the same, and that is why one of them already died while the other is still alive. According to theory, the main sun will expand as a red giant up to the orbit of Earth; and it will consume Mercury, Venus, the moon and Earth; and then it will shrink as a white dwarf. This scenario cannot be ruled out, but if it happens, it will be only after the events mentioned above.
The second sun caused the so-called Great Dying, and the current sun will cause the same. It is the final extinction of life on Earth. That is the END.
Many theories have been formulated to explain natural phenomena on Earth and Space. The high temperature of the early Earth is attributed to the presence of extra carbon in the Earth's atmosphere. The short day of the early Earth is attributed to fast rotation of the earth. The seafloor is said to be recycling every 200 million years. The source of rust on Mars is still a mystery. The lowlands on the other planets are another mystery. And the list goes on.
However, no traces of high carbon level on the earth are found, or signs of any abnormal rotation of the early earth. None of the given theories are supported by evidence that can be seen or verified.
The question now is, if there were another sun and died out, wouldn't it produce all of these results? If the answer is yes, and it is, so there had to be another sun in the sky. Its remains are still there and can be evaluated.
Knowing what has happened in the past isn't only good information to have, but also helps solving problems occurring today and predicting the future. It may not be important for many to know whether a second sun existed or not, but certainly everybody cares about earthquakes and other natural disasters.
The effect of the second sun on the earth in particular, and on the solar system in general, is a very large topic. We have only touched the surface. In-depth analysis and details are far to cover in few pages. But hopefully the main points presented in this report have given an overall idea of the role that the Night Sun has played.