The current star theories divide stars into two categories: white dwarf stars and neutron stars. 90% of stars in space are categorized as white dwarfs. The remaining 10% are neutron stars that explode as supernova. The supernova explosion is so huge to the point that you can see it very clearly even with the naked eye. Based on these two categories, we conclude that no solid material whatsoever can be found in dead stars. A nuclear explosion in the size of supernova will not even leave a grain of dust to remain intact. And white dwarfs are only condensed gases that fade away over time. However, on the link below, over 100 dying stars, categorized as white dwarfs, have been found polluted with planetary debris, rocks and metal! The assumed sources of planet debris around these dead stars are nearby planets. A research team is trying to find any of the assumed sources. But not a single planet has been found near these dead stars so far.
NASA's Hubble Space Telescope Finds Dead Stars
'Polluted with Planet Debris
The natural explanation is to say that the supposed planet debris have actually come out of the original stars after they have broken apart. It is like seeing a collapsed building; you don't need anyone to tell you that the junk you are seeing is the materials that were making up the building. But if you limit your conclusion to two options, then you have to pick one of these two options only, even if the selected option doesn't make sense at all. Saying so however doesn't mean no stars end up their life as condensed gases that vanish slowly over time, but to limit all stars in space to two categories only is a problem.
It seems that the second sun is very similar to, if not the same as, these dead stars that are found polluted with the so-called planetary debris; and of course, the source of the debris is the dead stars themselves.
The Sun of our solar system is classified as a star that will end up as a white dwarf. Based on
this theoretical classification, it is supposed to vanish without doing anything
at all. Now this assumption is challenged. A star that has been classified as a
white dwarf was found acting like a pulsing star: "New observations
from Suzaku, a joint Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and NASA X-ray
observatory, have challenged
scientists’ conventional understanding of
white dwarfs. Observers had
believed white dwarfs were inert stellar corpses that slowly cool and fade away,
but the new data tell a completely different story. At least one
white dwarf, known as AE
Aquarii, emits pulses
of high-energy (hard) X-rays as it whirls around on its axis. 'We’re seeing
behavior like the pulsar in the Crab Nebula, but we’re seeing it in a white
dwarf,' says Koji Mukai of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.
The Crab Nebula is the shattered remnant of a massive star that ended its life
in a supernova explosion. This is the first time
such pulsar-like behavior has ever been observed in a white dwarf."
Based on the quote above, we assume that the second sun acted as a pulsar by the end of its life, producing gamma rays, not just x-rays.
According to theories, stars produce light by nuclear fusion. The nuclear fusion produce gamma rays, and then these gamma rays are converted to light. On the other hand, observations have shown that some dying stars fire strong gamma rays; this means that these stars at a very late stage of their life failed to convert the produced gamma rays to light.
Gamma Ray Burst
"The Earth was engulfed in widespread volcanism at the time of the extinction."
Gamma ray is very penetrating. Even machine-made gamma ray can penetrate, for a certain degree, through lead.
When gamma rays pass through matter, they eject electrons from the atoms they strike. This process is called ionization. It is an action-reaction chemical process that can create new substances and compounds, which can lead to an increase in volume and/or pressure.
The ionization process that have taken place inside the mantle, when the earth was struck with gamma rays, caused a great increase in gas pressure, inside the mantle, that led the mantle to explode and the crust to break, in order to release the extra gas pressure.
The explosions that have taken place inside the mantle created very big holes and trenches in the crust, going all the way down to the mantle -- Based on debris from the earth's mantle found on the surface of earth, which is exactly the same as volcanic debris, scientists think the Earth was engulfed in widespread volcanism.
Via the open areas and trenches in the Earth's crust, asteroids and meteoroids from the second sun have gone into the earth's mantle, caused the earth to expand, and mountains to rise.
The rocks that have fallen inside the mantle got melted and created the ocean floor, whereas the rocks that have stacked up created mountains.
Because the ring of fire area contains the oldest ocean floor, it is most likely the first area to explode and open.
One last point: there is a metal (iron) asteroid in the main asteroid belt, orbiting almost in the middle of the belt, called, Psyche (see the picture below). It has a diameter of about 250 km. This asteroid could be the inner core of the second sun, or a major part of it. Stars do not have inner cores when they are fully functioning, but by the end of their life, when they fail to convert fuel to light, the last element they make is iron (Fe), and from that iron the inner core is developed.