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11. Earth has Expanded and Continents are Drifting!

red sea

The fact is that there are "few" parts of the continental crust, have been shaped in such a way, so that if they are pushed side by side they would fit together.

On the other hand, there are theories. But theories are not facts. They can be right or wrong. Any theory is just a thought trying to explain a fact, when the real cause of the fact is unknown.

The dominant theory for explaining the earth shaping is the Plate Tectonics, also called the Continental Drift. Another less famous theory is the Expanding Earth.

Island Pangea
The island Pangea, the assumed world map 225 million years ago!

World map; Atlantic centered

The tectonic theory states that the continents before 200 million years were in one single land sitting in a very vast ocean (right). And then these land chunks started to move, without any reason, and without any defined dynamic process! And because no reason is given for their movements, they are called, sometimes, wandering plates.

A major problem with the tectonic theory is that it views the world map from the Atlantic Ocean only, neglecting the Pacific, because the theory does not have an explanation for the matching edges on the pacific.

There are parts on the map, if they are viewed from the other side, they will fit perfectly on the Pacific too!

The expanding (continuously expanding) earth theory is more reasonable, because it deals with the map from all angles.

However, neither the Expanding Earth theory has an answer for why the earth is expanding, nor the Tectonic theory has an answer for why the so-called plates sat stationary for a very long time and then started to move all of a sudden. Moreover, both theories are not taking into consideration the ages of the lowlands of the other inner planets!

Regarding the Expanding Earth theory, the earth is not continuously expanding, it has just expanded once. And now it is shrinking!

The fact that cannot be missed is that neither the ocean floor existed nor the continents have ever moved before 200 million years.

If we take everything related to the earth structure into account, not ignoring anything, we have to say the earth has expanded, and the continents are drifting. In other words, the Expanding Earth theory and the Continental Drift theory are both correct in certain aspects.

Atlantic-centered world map
Atlantic-centered world map

Antarctica; ridges from all sides, no trenches

By looking at the mid-ocean ridge of the Atlantic, it can be seen clearly that the continents on both sides of the Atlantic are being pushed away from each other. The red color represents the newest seafloor. The yellow areas are older than the red, and so on. The green seafloor is about 150 million years old.

Antarctica is another example of the continental drift. It is surrounded by ridges from all sides. No trenches are found inside the circle of ridges of Antarctica.

The continents did not sit stationary for a long period of time, and all of a sudden started to move without any reason. The expansion of the earth, and the water that filled ocean basins, as we will see in the next section, are the reasons behind the drift of the land chunks.

Next we will see that there are parts of the world do fit together from the Pacific Ocean.


Pacific-centered world map
Pacific-centered world map


pacific ocean australia, south america

From the world map above, which is the Pacific Ocean centered, the shape in the picture to the right was produced.

Very simple turning of the colored areas, and without any artwork, we have something on the other side of the map that fits perfectly.

It is true that the parts that fit together from the other side are more, but not all of them do fit. The Mediterranean Sea doesn't fit, the Black Sea doesn't fit, the Gulf of Mexico doesn't fit, and many other areas do not fit.

The point is that we are not dealing with something that works according to a systematic natural law, but with an accident! Therefore, we should not expect, for example, a car accident to dismantle the car very nicely! Some parts may remain intact, but not all.

The Atlantic, as we will see later, has resulted from a crack in the basaltic layer at a late time, whereas the Pacific resulted from the initial explosion in the earth's crust, when the internal gas pressure exceeded the maximum limit. This fundamental difference in the way the two areas were separated produced completely different results.

At one period of time, the Pacific Ocean was small, just as it is shown in the picture above. Later on, the brown area was pushed away. And at a very late time, Australia separated.

murgon australia

Fossil discoveries prove that Australia and South America were connected together at least 50 million years ago. QUOTE: "The first evidence we have of marsupials [kangaroo-like animals] in Australia comes from the 55 million-year-old fossil site at Murgon in southern Queensland. This Murgon site has yielded a range of marsupial fossils, many with strong South American connections. At Murgon there is also evidence of a placental mammal, known as a condylarth. Placental mammals were also found in North America and South America at this time."

This fossil discovery is a shortcut for knowing that Australia was attached to South America at some period of the earth's history.

Ocean Trench
 Ocean Trench

Ocean Ridge
 Ocean Ridge

The map above also shows that the Pacific kept expanding for a very long period of time, until it arrived at its current size, and then stopped. Now it is shrinking. When the Pacific started to shrink, ocean trenches were created.

Ocean trenches and ridges were created in the Earth's lowland because the lowland on Earth is filled with water, and the Earth is trying to balance the amount of water on its surface.

At the time of the initial explosion, and while the earth was expanding, many parts of the continental crust have been mixed with the basaltic layer of the upper mantle. These parts are completely lost and cannot be retrieved. Therefore, any effort to reconstruct the original map of the earth will not succeed.

The evidence that shows that some parts of the crust rock have become part of the basaltic layer is the granite rocks that are found in ocean floor. Since granite is a foreigner to ocean floor, its presence there is very limited. This indicates that these granite layers were inserted, in one way or another, in an area where they are not supposed to be.

Granitic Seafloor Reported Off Brazil

Not much information is available about the granite seafloor that is found in Brazil, but it seems that during the initial explosions, a part of the continental crust was lowered down in the mantle, and then basalt rock that makes ocean floor built around it. Later on, it was drifted by the newly forming ocean floor. When water filled ocean basins, the upper soft layer from the crust, which was covering the granite sea floor, scattered by water. The remaining granite surface became part of the ocean floor, far in a deep sea, covered by water.

It is very likely that there are many ocean floors similar to the one found in Brazil, but waiting to be discovered. It is also possible that the shaping of the edges of these granite seafloors, if they are still intact, would match corresponding edges in the continental crust, so that if they are pushed side-by-side, they would fit together!

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